PRECOLONIAL METALWORKING IN AFRICA : A BIBLIOGRAPHY.

 

D.E. MILLER & T. MAGGS

Originally compiled by Dr Tim Maggs and staff of the Natal Museum, Private Bag 9070, Pietermaritzburg 3200, South Africa.

Maintained and updated by Dr Duncan Miller, Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa.

This version dated: 30 May 1998 June 1, 1998.

This bibliography has grown out of two research projects and is intended as a working tool. It concentrates on southern Africa, that is, Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and South Africa. It is incomplete and may have some inappropriate entries. It should be consulted in conjunction with the references listed in Volume 20 of the One World Archaeology Series (Shaw, T., Sinclair, P., Andah, B. & Okpoko, A. 1993. The archaeology of Africa - food, metals and towns:750-833. London: Routledge) which contains numerous references not listed below.

If you find this bibliography useful please cite it as a reference in publication as:

Miller, D.E. & Maggs, T. 1994. Pre-colonial metalworking in Africa, especially southern Africa: a bibliography:1-67. Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town (African Studies Library).

ABUKAKAR, N. 1992. Metallurgy in northern Nigeria: Zamfara metal industry in the 19th century. In Thomas-Emeagwali, G. ed Science and technology in African history with case studies from Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Zambia:55-78. Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press.

ACKERMAN, D. 1983. Marale van groot argeologiese belang. Custos 12(6):30-1.

ACUTT, N.C. 1933. When the Tongas left the cattle standard. South African Railways and Harbours Magazine 27(7):797.

ADAM, H.R. 1919. Ancient tin mines of the Transvaal. Journal of the Chemical Mining and Metallurgy Society of South Africa 19:288.

AFRIKA (Fortsetzung) 1873. Hermannsburger Missionsblatt 20(2):30-31.

AITCHISON, S.G.G. 1917. Native social life. Durban: Josiah Jones.

ALEXANDER, J. 1980. The spread and development of iron-using in Europe and Africa. In Leakey, R.E. and Ogot B.A. eds. Proceedings of the 8th Pan African Congress on Prehistory and Quaternary Studies, Nairobi 1977:327-330. Nairobi: International Louis Leakey Memorial Institute for African Prehistory.

ALLEN, I.M. 1958. Notes on copper objects from the Limpopo Valley. National Museums of Southern Rhodesia, Occasional papers, Human Sciences 3(22A).

AMADI, J.R. 1989. The northern factor in the history of sub-Saharan Africa: the Hamitic hypothesis revisited. Transafrican Journal of History 18:80-9.

AMBORN, H. 1970. Die Problematik der Eisenverhuttung in Reich Meroe. Paideuma 16:71-95.

AMBORN, H. 1976. Die Bedeutung der Kulturen des Niltals für die Eisen Produktion im sub-saharischen Afrika. Wiesbaden.

ANCIAUX DE FAVEAUX, E. & DE MARET, P. 1980. Vestiges de l'âge du fer dans les environs de Lubumbashi. Africa-Tervuren 23:13-19.

ANCIAUX DE FAVEAUX, E. & DE MARET, P. 1984. Premières datations pour la fonte du cuivre au Shaba (Zaïre). Bulletin Société royale belge d'Anthropologie et de Préhistoire 95:5-20.

ANDERSON, A.A. 1888. Twenty-four years in a wagon: sport and travel in South Africa. London:Chapman & Hall.

ANDERSON, F.V. 1961. The Shimbala mass burial. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 16:144-147.

ANDERSSON, C.J. 1856. Lake Ngami 2nd ed. London: Hurst & Blackett.

ANDERSSON, C.J. 1861. A narrative of travel, exploration and adventure. London: Hurst & Blackett. (Reprint 1968. Cape Town: Struik.)

ANDREYEV, I.L. 1967. Ferrous metallurgy: the world's earliest? In Kobiscanev, Y. ed. Africa remains undiscovered. Moscow. (Note: in Russian.)

ANGAS, G.F. 1849. The Kafirs illustrated. London: J.Hogarth. (Facsimile ed. 1974. Cape Town: Balkema).

ANKERMANN. 1905. Kulturtreise in Afrika. Zietschrift für Ethnologie 37(1).

ANONYMOUS. 1813-1818. Extracts from Mr Schmelen's journal of his journey to the Great Namacqua and Damara countries. London Missionary Society Quarterly Chronicles of the Transactions:323-326.

ANONYMOUS. 1818-1824. Transactions at Lattakoo. London Missionary Society Quarterly Chronicles of the Transactions 5:331-336, 370-374, 409-412.

ANONYMOUS. 1871. Leben und Treiben des Kaffervolkes in Sudost Afrika. Globus 19:51-99.

ANONYMOUS. 1873. Aus unserer mission. Hermannsburger Missionsblatt 20:8-11, 30-31.

ANONYMOUS. 1874. Die Zulu Kaffern. Globus 26:82-86.

ANONYMOUS. 1899. Middelbrooks Photographeren aus dem Leben der Zulukaffern. Globus 75:270.

ANONYMOUS. 1905. Machrichtan aus dem Ephoralkreis Natal. Berliner Missionberichte.

ANONYMOUS. 1907. Das deutsche Minengebiet von Tsumeb. Deutsche Kolonialblatt 18:33-4.

ANONYMOUS. 1916. The Swazi Kaffers. The Nonquai 2:352.

ANONYMOUS. 1943. Eisengewinnung und schmiede. Afrikanischer Heimatkalender.

ANONYMOUS. 1961. An ancient smelting craft revived. Horizon 3(8):30-32.

ANONYMOUS. 1972. Een duisend jaar oue ysterfabriek in Randse pad ontdek. Die Vaderland 23 November:4.

ANONYMOUS. 1974. Ancient mining and metallurgy. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 74:6.

ANONYMOUS. 1978. Assmang's ancient mines. The Anglovaler April:1-2.

ANOZIE, F.N. 1979. Early iron technology in Igboland (Lejja and Umundu). West African Journal of Archaeology 9.

ANQUANDAH, J. 1993. Urbanization and state formation in Ghana during the Iron Age. In Shaw, T., Sinclair, P., Andah, B. & Okpoko, A. eds The archaeology of Africa: food, metals and towns:642-651. London: Routledge.

ARBOUSSET, T. & DAUMAS, F. 1852. Narrative of an exploratory tour to the north-east of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope. Translated by J.C.Brown. London: John C. Bishop.

ARBOUSSET, T. 1842. Relation d'un voyage d'exploration. Paris.

ARCHINARD, M.L. 1884. La fabrication du fer dans le Soudan. Revue de Ethnographie 3:249-255.

ARKELL, A.J. 1945. Iron in the Meroitic ages. Antiquity 19(76):213-214.

ARKELL, A.J., FAGAN, B. & SUMMERS, R. 1966. Replies - the Iron Age in sub-Saharan Africa. Current anthropology 7:478-484.

ARKELL, J. 1953. Iron Age or Metal Age? South African Archaeological Bulletin 8(30):40.

ARKELL, J. 1953. Iron in Afrika. South African Archaeological Bulletin 8:52-57.

ARKELL, J. 1966. The Iron Age in the Sudan. Current Anthropology 7(4):451-452.

ASCHMANN, G. 1957. The past survives - I: Cape hawkers keep alive a dying art. The South African Archaeological Bulletin 12:146-147.

ASHTON, H. 1952. The Basuto. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press.

ASTRUP, N. 1974. Missions Reise des Rev. Nils Astrup (1891). Swaziland National Centre Yearbook 1974. Lobamba, Swaziland: SNC. (originally publ. as: En Missionreise til Limpopo gjennem Zululand, Swaziland og Tongaland ind i Riget Umgaza. Kristiana: Th. Steens, 1891).

ATANGANA, C. 1992. Les fosses d'Okolo (Sud du Cameroun): foullies et axes de recherches. Nyame Akuma 38:7-13.

AUSTEN, R.A. & HEADRICK, D. 1983. The role of technology in the African past. African Studies Review 26(3/4):163-184.

AUSTEN, R.A. 1986. African Economic History. London: James Currey.

AVERY, D.H. & SCHMIDT, P. 1979. A metallurgical study of the iron bloomery, particularly as practised in Buhaya. Journal of Metals 31(10):14-20.

AVERY, D.H. & SCHMIDT, P. 1986. The use of preheated air in ancient and recent African iron smelting furnaces: a reply to Rehder. Journal of Field Archaeology 13:354-357.

AVERY, D.H. 1982. The iron bloomery. In Wertime, T.A. & Wertime, S.F. eds Early pyrotechnology: the evolution of the first fire-using industries: 205-214. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

AVERY, D.H., VAN DER MERWE, N.J. & SAITOWITZ, S. 1988. The metallurgy of the iron bloomery in Africa. In Maddin, R. ed. The beginning of the use of metals and alloys: papers from the Second International Conference on the Beginning of the use of Metals and Alloys. Zhengzhov, China 21-26 October l986:261-82. Cambridge: MIT Press.

AXELSON, E. 1940. South-east Africa 1488-1530. London: Longmans Green.

AXELSON, E. 1959. Gold mining in Mashonaland in the l6th and 17th centuries. Optima 9:164-170.

AXELSON, E. 1960. Portuguese in South-East Africa 1600-1700. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

AXELSON, E. ed 1959. Viagem que fez o Padre Antonio Gomes, 1648. Studia (Lisbon):3.

BACELLAR BEBIANO, J. 1960. Notas sobre siderurgia dos indigenas de Angola e de outras regioes Africanas. Lisbon: Museo do Dundo. (Publicacoes culturais do Compania de Diamantes de Angola:50).

BACON, L. 1971-4. Unedited 8mm film on smelting in northern Ghana (colour).

BAIN, A.G. 1829-30. Extracts from the journal of Andrew Geddes Bain kept during a visit to some of the interior tribes of southern Africa, in the year 1826. South African Quarterly Journal:415-428.

BAINES, T. 1864. Explorations in South West Africa 1861-1862. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green.

BAINES, T. 1877. The gold regions of South-eastern Africa. London: Edward Stanford. (Port Elizabeth: J.W.C. Mackay).

BAKER, E.B. 1912. Native customs in Mashonaland. Empire Review 24:244-249,338-343.

BALANDIER, G. & MERCIER, P. 1947. Les outils du forgeron maure. Notes Africaines 33:8-11.

BALDE, S. 1935. Les forgerons au Fouta-Djallon. l'Education Africaine (Goree) 90/91:151-162.

BALFOUR, H. 1930. Iron metallurgy as an invention of the African continent. Journal of the Institute of Metal 43:350.

BANCROFT, J.A. 1961. Mining in Northern Rhodesia. London: British South Africa Company.

BARBA, A.A. 1640. Arte de los metales. Madrid. (Transl. by Earl of Sandwich, London: 167O).

BARBER, H.M. 1893. The perforated stones of South Africa. Journal of the Anthropological Institute Feb.

BARKER, H.M. 1965. Examination of the Ife bronze heads. Man 65(10):23-24.

BARNES, H.B. 1926. Iron-smelting among the Ba-Ushi. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 56:189-194.

BARROW, J. 1804. An account of travels into the interior of southern Africa, in the years 1797 and 1798. London: Cadell & Davies.

BARTELS, B. 1893a. Ruinen von Zimbabye im Maschona Lande. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 25:289-294.

BARTELS, M. 1893b. Ethnographische gegenstande and Sud-Afrika. Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellscheft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Ungeschichte:292,320-321.

BARTELS, M. 1893c. Ethnographische gegenstande and Sud-Afrika. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 25:320-321.

BATHILY, A. & MEILLASSOUX, C. 1988. Relations between the different regions of Africa. In El Fasi, M. & Hrbek, I. eds Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. Unesco General History of Africa Volume III:734749-. California: Heinemann.

BAUDOUIN, M. 1911. Une hache préhistorique en fer du Fouta-Djallon (Afrique centrale) de la collection Paul Gueghard. Bulletin de la Societe de France 8:701-704.

BAUMANN, H. & WESTERMANN, D. 1970. Les peuples et les civilisations de l'Afrique. Paris.

BAUMANN, H. 1937. Handwerke und fertigkeiten in N.O. Angola. Film: B/W, 7 1/2min, silent. Institut für wissenschaftlichen Film, Nonenstieg 72, D-3400 Gottingen, West Germany. Tel: 05 51 202 202.

BAUMANN, M. 1919. Ancient tin mines of the Transvaal. Journal of the Chemical Mining and Metallurgical Society of South Africa 19:120-132.(+ Discussion pp187, 209, 219, 282-288. + v.20:32-34).

BBC TV. 1964. Iron smelting at Sukur, n.e. Nigeria. Film.

BEACH, D.N. 1988. 'Refuge' archaeology, trade and gold mining in nineteenth-century Zimbabwe: Izidoro Correia Pereira's list of 1857. Zimbabwean Prehistory 20:3-8.

BEAUMONT, P.B. & VOGEL, J.C. 1972a. On a new radiocarbon chronology for Africa south of the equator. Pt1. African Studies 31(2):65-89.

BEAUMONT, P.B. & VOGEL, J.C. 1972b. On a new radiocarbon chronology for Africa south of the equator. Pt2. African Studies 31:155-182.

BEAUMONT, P.B. 1969. The Brotherton Shelter. South African Archaeological Bulletin. 22(1):27.

BEAUMONT, P.B. 1973. The ancient pigment mines of southern Africa. South African Journal of Science 69(5):140-146.

BEAUMONT, P.B. 1974. Report on test excavations in a prehistoric pigment mine near Postmasburg, Northern Cape. South African Archaeological Bulletin 29(113/114):41-59.

BEAUMONT, P.B. et al. 1978. Border Cave. South African Journal of Science 74:409-19.

BECK, L. 1884. Die Geschichte des Eisens. Bd. 1, Braunschweig.

BECKER, P. 1968. A comparative study of strategy in Bantu tribal warfare during the nineteenth century. Military History Journal 1(3):2-8.

BEEMER, H. 1937. The development of the military organization in Swaziland. Africa 10:176-204.

BEIDELMAN, T.O. 1962. Iron working in Ukaguru. Tanganyika Notes and Records 58/59:288-289.

BELLAMY, C.V. 1904. A West African smelting house with analysis of specimens by F.W. Harbord. Journal of Iron and Steel Institute 56:99-127.

BENT, J.T. 1892. The ruined cities of Mashonaland. London: Longmans Green. (2nd ed. 1893. New ed. 1896. Facsimile report Bulawayo: Rhodesian Reprint Library, 1969).

BERARD, M. 1951. La metallurgie bassari du Togo-française. Compes Rendus 1er Congres Internationale Africaine Occidentale, Dakar, 1945:231-235.

BERNHARD, F.O. 1959. No other details available.

BERNHARD, F.O. 1962. Two types of iron-smelting furnaces on Ziwa farm (Inyanga). South African Archaeological Bulletin 17(68):235-236.

BERNHARD, F.O. 1968. A Ziwa furnace. South African Archaeological Bulletin 23(89):16.

BERNHARD, F.O. 1971. Karl Mauch African explorer. Cape Town: Struik.

BERNUS, S. & ECHARD, N. 1985. Metalworking in the Agadez region (Niger): an ethnoarchaeological approach. In Craddock, P.T. & Hughes, M.J. eds. Furnaces and smelting technology in antiquity. London: British Museum Occasional Papers 48:71-80.

BERTHO, J. 1945. Vestiges de la fabrication du fer au Bas-Dahomey. Notes Africaines 28(32):9-10.

BERTHO, J. 1946. Note sur le haut - fourneau et la forge de Bobo-Oule (Bobo-rouge) de Dedougou (Haute Cote d'Ivoire) Notes Africaines 30:10.

BERTHOUD, G. 1969. Les Ganawuri du Nigeria: facteurs techniques, economiques et religieux de la production materielle. Bulletin annuel du Musée d'Ethnographie de la Ville de Geneve 12:9-9l.

BEUSTER, C.L. 1879. Das volk der Vawende. Zeitschrift des Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin 14.

BIRD, J. 1888. The annals of Natal: 1495-1845.:35,186-187,305. Cape Town: Maskew Miller.

BISHOP, W.W. & CLARK, J.D. eds. 1967. Background to evolution in Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

BISSON, M. 1978. Trace element analysis of prehistoric copper samples from Kansanshi and Kipushi. Nyame Akuma 12:49-51.

BISSON, M.S. 1974. Prehistoric copper mining in north-western Zambia. Archaeology 27(4):242-247.

BISSON, M.S. 1975. Copper currency in central Africa: the archaeological evidence. World Archaeology 6(3):272-292.

BISSON, M.S. 1976. The prehistoric coppermines of Zambia. Ph.D. thesis: University of California in Santa Barbara.

BISSON, M.S. 1989. Continuity and discontinuity in copperbelt and north-western province ceramic sequences. Nyame Akuma 31:43-6.

BISSON, M.S. 1990. Prehistoric copper mining in northwestern Zambia. Archaeology 27(4):242-8.

BLACKING, J. 1969. Songs, dances, mimes and symbolism of Venda girls' initiation school. Pt.2. Milayo. African Studies 28(2):69-118.

BLACKING, J. 1969. Songs, dances, mimes and symbolism of Venda girls' initiation school. Pt. 3. Domba. African Studies 28(3):149-199.

BLAKNEY, C.P. 1963. On 'banana' and 'iron', linguistic footprints in African history. Hartford.

BLONDEL, F. & MARVIER, L. 1952. Symposium sur les gisements de fer du monde. XIXe Congres Internationale Geologique, Algiers.

BLOOMHILL, G. 1963. The ancient copper miners of Africa: Lemba tribe's secret "Mutsuku" rites. African World 6.

BOCOUM, H. 1986. La métallurgie du fer au Sénégal: approche archéologique, technologique et historique. Thèse de 3e cycle, Université de Paris I:1-333.

BOCOUM, H. 1988. Métallurgie er couvert végétal dans la moyenne vallée du Ségégal et dans les régions voisines. Notes de Biogéographie 3:67-78.

BOCOUM, H. 1990. La métallurgie du fer au Sénégal des origines au XXième siècle: esquisse d'une évolution des techniques de réduction:1-19.

BOCOUM, H., GUILLOT, I. & FLUZIN, P. 1988. Apport de la métallographie structurale à l'interpretation fonctionelle de trois objets en fer du Sénégal. Revue d'archéometrie 12:57-70.

BOERNER, H. 1937. The development of the military organisation in Swaziland. Africa 10:55-74, 176-204.

BOHM, C. 1988. The conservation of iron objects from Manyikeni. Studies in Archaeology 2:17-22.

BOSHIER, A.K. & BEAUMONT, P.B. 1969. A preliminary report on excavations in a pigment mine on the farm Doornfontein M.82 Postmasburg District. Museum of Man and Science. Report Fieldwork. Postmasburg. November.

BOSHIER, A.K. & BEAUMONT, P.B. 1970. Nuclear antiquity 2. Beyond the mists of mining. Nuclearactive 24:1-12.

BOSHIER, A.K. & BEAUMONT, P.B. 1972. Mining in Southern Africa and the emergence of modern man. Optima 22(1):2-12.

BOSHIER, A.K. 1965. Ancient mining at Bomvu Ridge, Swaziland. Scientific South Africa 2(7):317-326.

BOSHIER, A.K. 1969. Mining genesis. Mining Survey (Johannesburg Chamber of Mines) 64.

BOSTON, J.S. 1964. Ceremonial iron gongs among the Ibo and the Igala. Man 64(52):44-47.

BOWER, J.G. 1927. Native smelting in equatorial Africa. Mining Magazine 37(3):137-147.

BOWMAN, S.G.E. 1985. A study of the pre-dose characteristics of core material from a number of Berun and Lower Niger copper-alloy castings. Nuclear tracks and radiation measurements 10(4-6):779-784.

BRAIDWOOD, R.J. & WILLEY, G.R. 1962. eds. Courses toward urban life: archaeological considerations of some cultural alternates. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

BRELSFORD, W.V. 1940. Notes on some Northern Rhodesian bowstands. Man 40(47):35-41.

BRELSFORD, W.V. 1942. Iron work in Northern Rhodesia. Man 42(27).

BRELSFORD, W.V. 1949. Rituals and medicines of Chishinga iron workers. Man 49(27):27-29.

BREUTZ, P.L. 1950. Metallurgy in Africa. ISCOR News 15:771-775.

BREUTZ, P.L. 1953. The tribes of Rustenburg and Pilansberg districts. Department of Native Affairs, Ethnologic Publication SA 28:7-450.

BREUTZ, P.L. 1953/4. The tribes of Marico District. Department of Native Affairs, Ethnologic Publication SA 30:1-266.

BRINCARD, M.T. ed. 1982. The art of metal in Africa. New York: Afro-American Institute.

BROCK, B.P.W.G. 1965. Iron working amongst the Nyiha of southwestern Tanganyika. South African Archaeological Bulletin 20(78):97-100.

BROKENSHA, D.W. 1983. Untitled review of J. Müller, Liquidation or Consolidation of Indigenous Technology. African Studies Review 26(2):90-91.

BROKENSHA, D.W., WARREN, D.M. & WERNER, O. eds. 1980. Indigenous knowledge systems and development. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

BROWN, E.J. 1973. Early iron production. Rhodesian Prehistory 10:3-7.

BROWN, J. 1971. Iron working in southern Mbeere. Mila 11(2):37-50.

BROWNE, W.H. 1899. On the South African frontier. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons.

BROWNLEE, F. 1928. The circumcision ceremony in Fingoland. Bantu Studies 3(2):179-183.

BROWNLEE, F. 1946. Nkunzi: the maker of assegais. African Affairs. Journal of the African Society 45(178):5.

BRUHNS, K.O. 1970. A Quimbaya gold furnace. American Antiquity 35(2):202-3.

BRUWER, J.P. 1958. The Kuanyama of South West Africa. Stellenbosch.

BRYANT, A.T. 1929. Olden times in Zululand and Natal. London: Longmans Green. (reprinted Cape Town: Struik 1965).

BRYANT, A.T. 1945. Bantu Origins. Cape Town: Struik.

BRYANT, A.T. 1949. The Zulu people as they were before the white man came. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter. (2nd ed. 1967).

BRYANT, A.T. 1964. A history of the Zulu and neighbouring tribes. Cape Town: Struik. (First publ. 1911-1913).

BRYDEN, H.A. 1890-91. Gun and camera in southern Africa. London: Stanford.

BUCAILLE, R. 1975. Takadda, pays du cuivre. Bulletin de la Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire 37:719-778.

BULELI, N. 1993. Iron-making techniques in the Kivu region of Zaïre: some of the differences between the South Maniema region and north Kivu. In Shaw, T., Sinclair, P., Andah, B. & Okpoko, A. eds The archaeology of Africa: food, metals and towns:468-477. London: Routledge.

BULLOCK, C. 1929. The story of an Anthropological research trek. NADA 7:57.

BULLOCK, C. 1929. Thoughts on a show. NADA 7:50-52.

BULLOCK, C. 1950. The Mashona and the Matabele. Cape Town: Struik.

BULLOCK, J.B. 1936. Primitive iron smelting in South Africa. ISCOR News Sept:399-405. (Also published: Johannesburg: Empire Exhibition).

BUNNEY, S. 1989. West African metalworking predates European contact. New Scientist 122(1668)June 10:33.

BURCHARDT, M. 1912. Die Eisenzeit in Aegypten. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 4:447.

BURCHELL, W.J. 1822-1824. Travels in the interior of Southern Africa (2v):439,482,532,597. London: Longman Hurst. (Facsimile reprint Cape Town:1967)

BURKE, E.E. ed. 1969. The journals of Carl Mauch 1869-1872. Salisbury: National Archives of Rhodesia.

BURROW, J. n.d. Travels in the wilds of Africa. Being the diary of a young scientific assistant who aaccompanied Sir Andrew Smith in the expedition of 1834-36. Cape Town: Balkema.

CAIRNCROSS, B. 1997. The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V deposits. The Mineralogical Record 28:109-130.

CALDERWOOD, J.M. 1906. Ancient workings in the northern Transvaal. South African Mines, Commerce and Industries.

CALLAWAY, H. 1866-8. Nursery tales, traditions and histories of the Zulus. Springvale, Natal: Blair.

CALVOCORESSI, D. & DAVID, N. 1979. A new survey of radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dates for West Africa. Journal of African History 20:1-29.

CAMERON, V.L. 1877. Across Africa. New York.

CAMPBELL, J. 1822. Travels in South Africa ...a second journey... 2v. London: Francis Westley. (reprinted Cape Town: Struik 1974).

CAMPBELL, J.M. 1910. Native iron smelting in Haute Guinee. Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Bulletin 67:1-5.

CARL, L. and PETIT, J. 1955. Une technique archaique de la fabrication du fer dans le Mourdi (Sahara Oriental) L'Ethnographie 50:60-81.

CARPENTER, H.C.H. & ROBERTSON, J.M. 1930. The metallography of some ancient Egyptian implements. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 121:417-454.

CARR, M.J., CARR. A.C. & JACOBSON, L. 1978. Hut remains and related features from the Zerrissene Mountain area: their distribution, typology and ecology. Cimbebasia (B) 2:235-258.

CARTER, 1927. The wreck of the Grosvenor. Van Riebeeck Society 8.

CARTER, P. 1973. Dating of industrial assemblages from stratified sites in eastern Lesotho. Nyame Akuma 3:12-.

CARTER, T.L. 1912. Some observations on ancient mine workings in the Transvaal. Journal of the Chemical Mining and Metallurgy Society of South Africa 12:414-415.

CATON-THOMPSON, G. 1931. The Zimbabwe culture: ruins and reactions. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

CAVAZZI, P.G.A. 1687. Istorica descrizione de tre regni Congo Matamba e Angola, silvati nell Etiopia interiore occidentale. Bologna.

CELIS, G. & NZIKOBANYANKA, E. 1976. Le métallurgie traditionelle au Burundi: techniques et croyances. Tervuuren: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Archives d'Anthropologie no. 25:1-214.

CELIS, G. 1987a. Introduction à la métallurgie traditionelle au Rwanda. Butare: Institut National de Recherche Scientifique publication no. 34:1-300.

CELIS, G. 1987b. Fondeurs et forgerons Ekonda (Equateur, Zaïre). Anthropos 82:109-134.

CELIS, G. 1989. La métallurgie tradtionnelle au Burundi, au Rwanda et au Rwanda, essai de synthèse. Anthropos 84:25-46.

CELIS, G. 1990. Introduction à la metallurgie traditionelle chez les Songhaï du Niger. Anthropos, in press.

CELIS, G. n.d. Introduction aux métallurgies traditionelles des Sénoufos (Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Burkina Faso):1-250. (To appear in 1991).

CENTRAL AFRICAN FILM UNIT. 1960. Films of Kaonde copper and iron smelting. See Chaplin, J.H. 1961. Notes on Traditional Smelting in Northern Rhodesia. South African Archaeological Bulletin 16:53-60.

CERULLI, E. 1956. L'iniziazione al mestiere di fabbro in Africa. Studi e materiali di storia delle religioni 27:87-101.

CERULLI, E. 1957. Il fabbro africano, eroe culturale. Studi e materiali di storia delle religioni 28(2):79-113.

CHAMBERS, A.L. 1913. Mining copper ores at Messina. Journal of the Chemical Mining and Metallurgy Society of South Africa 14:192-195.

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