The Cornish in Latin America

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Significant numbers of Cornish miners arrived from 1824-5 to work in Latin American mines that lay derelict, abandoned and flooded due to the Wars of Emancipation raging across the continent. Backed by large amounts of British capital some mines were rehabilitated and once more became successful enterprises. In several mining regions of Latin America, such as Fresnillo and Pachuca-Real del Monte in Mexico, the signs of a Cornish industrial landscape complete with masonry engine houses with integral chimneys, betray the involvement of the Cornish in bringing the industrial revolution to those shores. 

But far less tangible evidence for their intimate connection with the Latin American mining industry exists on countless mine maps and plans, the workings often described in typically Cornish terms. For not only did the Cornish bring with them new working practices such as the tribute system, but a vast new mining terminology, some of it derived from the Cornish language. This was added and blended to a rich Ibero-American technical vocabulary resulting in a global mining language. Some of the most common terms and phrases are given; Ibero-American terms are in italics.

TackleWindlass, rope and kibble.
TailingsRefuse from the previous dressing operations.
Tajo abiertoAn open cut.
TenateroOre carrier from the workings to the surface, or to the despacho only
TentaduraThe amalgamation mixture. An alloy of mercury and silver.
TesteraA dyke interrupting the course of a lode.
TinasWooden tubs or vats.
TiroA shaft.
TortaA certain quantity of ore under amalgamation, forming one heap, which, being flat in shape, is called a torta, or cake.
TributersMen whose pay is a certain proportion of the ore, or value of the ores they raise.
TutworkWork in which the labourer earns in proportion to his labour, being paid for driving at a certain price per fathom.
TyeA long trough to separate roughs from slimes by washing. Tying therefore refers to the washing of minerals.

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