The BABBAGE Pages: Papers on Babbage

Footnotes: Whiggism in the History of Science and the Study of the Life and Work of Charles Babbage

  1. Frances A. Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Routledge, 1964.

  2. Butterfield had set the scene for the discussion with his classic work, The Whig Interpretation of History, London, 1931.

  3. `Computer Science' is itself a curious term it rarely involves much science, in Karl Popper's sense of the term, and usually has more to do with computing than with the structure of computers. Knowledge of the relation between technology and the structure of computers, which was everyday work of engineers of the 1950s and early 1960s, is in danger of becoming a lost art.

  4. C.f. Anthony Hyman, Charles Babbage, Pioneer of the Computer, 252, Princeton, 1982. (Hereafter referred to as Pioneer of the Computer).

  5. Dr. Antonio Clericuzio, personal communication. The traditional view of Robert Boyle is currently being drastically revised as a result of extensive studies of his life and work.

  6. I am not forgetting Geoffrey Lloyd's invaluable work, however Prof. Lloyd's books do not deal with this particular problem.

  7. Francis M. Comford: From Religion to Philosophy: A study in the Origins of Western Speculation Cambridge 1912, Principium Sapientiae, Cambridge 1952.

  8. George Thomson, The First Philosophers London, 1955.

  9. Joseph Needham, `The Tao Chia (Taoists) and Taoism'; Ch. 10, 33, of Science and Civilization in China, Cambridge University Press, 1956.

  10. C.f. Walter Pagel, Paracelsus: An Introduction to Philosophical Medicine in the Era of the Renaissance 2nd. ad. Basel, 1982; William Harvey s Biological Ideas, Basel, 1967. For a general discussion c.f. Frances Yates, The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age, Routledge 1979.

  11. Klibansky, Raymond, The Continuity of the Platonic Tradition during the Middle Ages, Warburg Institute, London, 1939.

  12. Pagel, Paracelsus (see n 10).

  13. Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition , 153-4, Routledgc, 1964.

  14. Peter French, John Dee: The World of an Elizabethan Magus, Routledge, 1972.

  15. Pietro Redondi, Galileo Heretic, Allen Lane, London, 1988.

  16. Frances Yates, The French Academies of the Sixteenth Century , Warburg Institute, London, 1947.

  17. H.R. Trevor-Roper, `The European Witch Craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries ,' in Religion, the Reformation and Social Change, London, 1972.

  18. Frank Baron ,Dr Faustus, from History to Legend, Wilhelm Fink, Munich, 1978.

  19. Frances Yates, Shakespear' s Last Plays, Routledge, 1975.

  20. Roy Strong, Henry Prince of Wales and England's Lost Renaissance, Thames and Hudson, 1986.

  21. Harriot to Kepler, 13 July, 1608 (old style), quoted in John W. Shirley, ed., Thomas Harriot, Renaissance Scientist, 4, Oxford, 1974.

  22. Pietro Redondi, loc. cit. (note 15), Ch. 3.

  23. Betty J.T. Dobbs, The Foundations of Newton's Alchemy, Cambridge, 1975; Karen Figala, `Newton as an Alchemist', History of Science, 15, (1977), 102-37

  24. Anthony Hyman, Science and Reform, Selected Works of Charles Babbage, 242-3, Cambridge, 1989.

  25. Anthony Hyman, Computing, A Dictionary of Terms, Concepts and Ideas, 35, London, 1976; Pioneer of the Computer, 242.

  26. Pioneer of the Computer, 210, note 47, 244-5.

  27. Annals of the History of Computing, 10, no. 3 (1988), 191.

  28. It is generally wise to treat arguments ex silencio with considerable skepticism. To the all too common over-confident statements that Babbage did not grasp this, that or the other point--when really we don't know--one can I think apply the old adage: When Peter writes about Paul, we learn more about Peter than we do about Paul.

  29. C.f. Anthony Hyman ed. Memoir of the Life and Labours of the late Charles Babbage Esq. FRS, introduction, xiii & xiv, MIT/Tomash, 1988.

  30. Pioneer of the Computer, Ch. 6.

  31. M. Wiener, English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit, Cambridge, 1981.

  32. Correlli Barnet, The Audit of War, The Illusion and Reality of Britain as a Great Nation, Macmillan, 1986.

  33. For one invaluable study which really does make a rare serious attempt to set a portion of Babbage's work (his cryptology) against the relevant more general background, in this case mainly the history of mathematics, see: Ole Immanuel Franksen, Mr. Babbage's Secret, The Tale of a Cypher--and APL, Strandberg, 1984.

Maintainer & date: October 01, 1996