Mysterious Machu Picchu and Peru

The Inca Trail Home Page

Here, below you will find links to other sources on the Inca Trail and Machu Picchu, the Incas, possible contacts between ancient Peru and other civilizations, archaeological sites, Peru in general, adventure travel companies, and newsgroups for discussing hiking the Inca Trail.

Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail

The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
First, my own Inca Trail home page, just in case you have arrived at this page of links by some other route!
It has photographs and notes on the ruins seen along the trail, accounts of two hikes eight years apart and the changes that I observed, and details of a novel - Into the Fire - a thriller set in London and Peru which includes episodes on the Inca Trail and in Machu Picchu! It is now also available as an ebook!


Explore the Inca Trail by Jacquetta Megarry and Roy Davies.
A handy, extensively illustrated guide published by Rucksack Readers. Now in its second edition. It may be ordered from the Rucksack Readers website or from, the British branch of Amazon, or in North America.
Hiking and Biking Peru's Inca Trails by William Janecek.
Hiking and Biking Peru’s Inca Trails, a guidebook in the Cicerone series, contains 40 trekking and mountain biking routes in Peru’s Sacred Valley, exploring the many exciting Inca archeological sites via lesser-known paths and tracks - including seven different trails to Machu Picchu. There is also practical information such as accommodation options, plus information on how to hire guides, mules and bike
The Inca Trail by Richard Danbury.
A detailed and thorough guidebook to the Inca Trail.
Cusco & the Inca Trail Heartland by Ben Box & Steve Frankham.
A guide to the Cusco area in general, including the Machu Picchu and various treks.
Machu Picchu: A Civil Engineering Marvel by Kenneth R. Wright and Alfredo Valencia Zegarra.
Machu Picchu is more than a mysterious, ancient city. It is also an extraordinary civil engineering achievement.
The Machu Picchu Guidebook: a self-guided tour by Ruth M. Wright and Alfredo Valencia Zegarra.
An almost step-by-step tour which explains the significance of the various buildings helping the visitor to gain a deeper insight and greater appreciation of this remarkable place. It is available from Amazon (click on the link above) and also from

For a description in fiction, see Into the Fire, a thriller with a number of chapters set on the Inca Trail and in Machu Picchu.


The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
This Inca Trail site's home page.
Rucksack Readers' Inca Trail Forum
This forum, hosted by Rucksack Readers, is one of a number devoted to different parts of the world, where individuals can discuss particular hikes and trails.
Step by Step to Machu Picchu: Inca Trail Map new!
In addition to the map there are notes on each of the stages of the trail illustrated with photographs, and practical information.
Abroadio: Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
A guide to the trail and Machu Picchu with information about alternative routes. The same website has a page on climbing Huayna Picchu, the peak overlooking Machu Picchu.
Through the Clouds to Machu Picchu
A photo gallery of the legendary citadel perched among peaks that seem to touch the sky.
Debate Rages in Peru: Was a Lost City Ever Lost?
New evidence suggests that other people might have visited the ruins of Machu Picchu long before their rediscovery by Hiram Bingham. New York Times, December 7, 2008.
Rediscover Machu Picchu
A travel guide to one of the world's most mysterious and spectacular archaeological sites. In addition to information about the ruins, Inca history and civilisation the website also contains practical travel information and links to other sites.
UNESCO sends mission to assess the state of conservation of Machu Picchu World Heritage Site
UNESCO sent a mission to the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, Peru, in view of concerns by the World Heritage Committee for the conservation of this outstanding Andean archaeological centre and its natural environment. From 23 to 30 April 2007 the mission visited the site and met people in the region.
Machu Picchu Travel Guide
A wealth of information for everyone thinking of visiting Machu Picchu and the surrounding area.
New 7 Wonders of the World
Machu Picchu was chosen as one of the new Seven Wonders.
Machu Picchu voted No.1 wonder of the world
The lost Inca city received over 50 per cent more votes than any other attraction in a poll of Wanderlust magazine readers. 21 October 2005.
Camino Inca: Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
A major, non-commercial website for hikers and visitors to Machu Picchu maintained by Jacob West.
Camino Inca: Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
A major, non-commercial website for hikers and visitors to Machu Picchu maintained by Jacob West.
£70m plan to save lost Inca city
The Peruvian government has come up with an emergency plan to preserve the mountain-top Inca citadel Machu Picchu and the surrounding national park from the ravages of too many tourists and possible landslides. Guardian, April 14, 2005.
Inca Trail Practical Information from Andean Travel
A website full of the practical details that anyone planning a trip is likely to require. Details of regulations, permits, typical prices, tour operators, preparations for the trek, porter welfare all covered and there is also a general FAQ.
Inca Trail Regulations
Updated information in English about the official regulations governing hiking the trail.
The Inca Trail FAQ
Some answers, provided by Angus McIntyre, to frequently asked questions.
Trekking the Inca Trail - A guide
The guide is provided by Tourdust, a company that also arranges treks of the Inca Trail.
The Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, Peru
A ten minute YouTube video giving a day by day account of a trek along the trail in 2006.
Bridge stirs the waters in Machu Picchu
At the village Santa Teresa, about 10 miles from Machu Picchu, a new bridge, the Carilluchayoc bridge over the Vilcanota River, has opened another route to Machu Picchu. BBC 1 February 2007.
Unesco sounds final warning for Inca city
Machu Picchu, may be placed on the United Nations list of endangered world heritage sites. The UN has been told that mass tourism is endangering the citadel, which was made a world heritage site in 1983. Guardian, June 30, 2004.
Machu Picchu Art at
FreeArt provides free small art prints of over 26 Million images, including over 2,500 of Machu Picchu (as of June 2016). For a shipping fee. High-quality art prints may be ordered for a small fee.
Barewalls Photos and Prints featuring the Inca Trail
Barewalls was established in 1996 to capitalize on the potential of the Internet for selling prints and photos online. Over a thousand featuring the Inca Trail are included. Over 2,000 featuring Machu Picchu can also be found using the site's search engine.
Machu Picchu Stock Photography from Go Graph
A collection from Inca Trail Stock Photographs is available from the same source.
Royalty-free stock photographs of Machu Picchu
A collection from Can Stock Photo.
Stock photographs of Machu Picchu
A collection of photos from Fotosearch.
Machu Picchu - 360 degree views
A website offering spectacular panoramic views from various vantage points. It also includes an Inca Trail map.
Peru mudslides hit Machu Picchu
Six people died and hundreds of tourists were stranded cut after mudslides at Aguas Calientes near the historic ruins of Machu Picchu. BBC, 10 April 2004.
Peru acts to protect Inca Trail
An article about the impact of the new regulations. The Observer, April 28, 2002.
Tourist threat to Inca citadel
The Peruvian National Institute of Culture is considering limiting the daily number of visitors to the Inca citadel Machu Picchu to 500 - half the present number. The Guardian October 29, 2003.
A Tour to Machu Picchu
An article by Alfredo Valencia Zegarra. It is part of the site which also has a section on maps and the weather.
Inca Trail and Machu Picchu by Angus McIntyre.
An excellent description of the Trail, with photographs.
20,000 Miles of Dreams (excerpt)
A brief account of what it was like to be on the Inca Trail in weather so atrocious that the authorities were forced to close the trail for the first time in the national park's history.
Museo Machu Picchu Casa Concha
The museum in Cusco is home to the largest collection of Machu Picchu artifacts in the world.
>Former Peru first lady battles for Machu Picchu artifacts taken by Yale"
Former first lady Eliane Karp Toledo continues to battle for the return of Inca artifacts taken from Machu Picchu to Yale University by Hiram Bingham in the early 1900s. Living in Peru April 8, 2009.
Peru Tries to Recover Gold From Yale's Ivory Tower
President Toledo - because of his Indian heritage but also on behalf of all Peruvians - has made it a priority to recover the objects taken to Yale from Machu Picchu by Hiram Bingham. Washington Post, March 9, 2006.
Machu Picchu : Unveiling the Mystery of the Incas
An explanatory article written in connection with the exhibitiona at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, October 18, 2003 to January 4, 2004.
Walking Through Macchu Picchu with Whitman's Song in Mind
An article comparing the poets Walt Whitman and Pablo Neruda. It contains extracts in both Spanish and English from Neruda's famous poem, the Heights of Macchu Picchu. (That was how Neruda spellt the name).
Peru 'ignoring threat' to Inca site
Reactions to claims by Japanese scientists, originally reported in the New Scientist, about the possible threat to Machu Picchu of landslides. BBC 23 June, 2001.
Inca Trail and Peru Travel Information
By David Gualtieri, based on a visit there in September 1997.
Hiking the Inca Trail by Ric Finch
A good description with links to high-quality photographs of the places mentioned in the text.
Conserving the Inca Trail
The Inca Trail receives over 70,000 visitors a year. Although the main body of the trail system is taking the strain remarkably well a project to restore the eroded sections and conserve the trail is planned by Mountain Path Repair International.
The Inca Trail Marathon
Information about the most spectacular marathon in South America. The site also includes the results for the past few years.
Machu Picchu - Places of Peace and Power
Photographs from a book on sacred sites by Martin Gray.
Machu Picchu, Inca Pachacuti's Sacred City: A multiple ritual, ceremonial and administrative center
A detailed paper by Gary Ziegler and J. McKim Malville on the functions of Machu Picchu and its connections with Llactapata and other Inca sites.
Machu Picchu Abandoned: How the secret was kept
An article by Gary Ziegler outlining recent theories about the origins and role of Machu Picchu and why it was never found by the Conquistadors.
The Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu
Information from UNESCO.
Machu Picchu: Consecration or Desecration
A plea for the preservation of this unique area by Carol Cumes who is the author of a book, Journey to Machu Picchu, on the traditions and beliefs of the Andean people.

Other Pre-Columbian Trails

Adventure Guide: Peru's Camino Salcantay
The Camino Salcantay has begun to emerge as a popular alternative to the Inca Trail. National Geographic Traveler, May/June 2009.
Restoration Afoot for Ancient Inca Trails
Plans are being drawn up to restore other roads from the ancient Inca Empire to entice tourists. National Geographic, August 17, 2004.
El Capac Ñan. Qhapaq Ñanan, Andean Road System new!
The Inca Road system is an extensive Inca communication, trade and defence network of roads about 23,000 km in length.The Qhapaq Ñanan Andean Road System on the Unesco World Heritage list includes 273 component sites spread over more than 6,000 km that were selected to highlight the social, political, architectural and engineering achievements of the network, along with its associated infrastructure for trade, accommodation and storage, as well as sites of religious significance.
The Inca Trail to Kuelap
The trail to Machu Picchu is by no means the only surviving Inca road in Peru. There is also on to the massive ruins of Kuelap, the city built by the Chachapoyas.
Beyond Machu Picchu - Choquequirao, Lost City in the Clouds
An article by Gary Ziegler who has spent many years researching Choquequirao and is the author of a book on the city.
Conquering Choquequirao: the long walk to Peru's lesser-known Lost city,
A description of the hike by Mike Johanson for the Lonely Planet.
The Choquequirao Trail
The website of a company specialising in treks to Choquequirao.
Choquequirao: Playing second fiddle to Machu Picchu but not for much longer
A travel blog article about a trek along the Choquequirao Trail.
UCLA Team Discovers Andean Trade Route, Clues to Origins of Civilization
A team led by Charles Stanish has studied a 150-mile-long circuit through the highlands of the Lake Titicaca Basin along which predecessors of the Inca as the Qaluyu and Pucara peoples appear to have traded gold, feathers, pelts, honey, hardwoods and herbal medicines.
The Takesi Trail
One of a number of important Bolivian trails.
How to Hike the El Choro Trek in Bolivia
A brief description of a hike along another ancient Bolivian trail.
Bolivian Hikes
Includes information about a number of ancient trails, e.g. the Madidi, Mapiri, Choro, Takesi, and Yunga Cruza. (The Yunga Cruz trail in Bolivia is reputedly the roughest and most impressive of the precolonial trail used by the Tiwanacu and Inca cultures).

Corihuayrachina, Cota Coca and Llactapata

The first two are so-called "lost cities" whose discovery was announced in 2002. Koriwayrachina (as it would probably be spelt in according to Quechua rules, or Corihuayrachina to use the Hispanic spelling), is one of the most publicised archaeological discoveries in many years. However Gary Ziegler, who planned the expedition to the site, has stated that the discovery has been a bit overblown by the world press and that the site is valuable for its scientific information but is not a "city".

Less than three months after the discovery of Qoriwayrachina (also spelt Corihuayrachina) was announced it was revealed that a much larger Inca site known as Cota Coca had been found. Both are in Vilcabamba, a relatively short distance as the crow flies, from Machu Picchu. In November 2003 the Royal Geographical Society announced that Thomson and Ziegler had rediscovered another lost city, Llactapata not far from Machu Picchu. It is hoped that this latest discovery will shed new light on Machu Picchu itself.

Llactapata: the Re-Discovery of an Inca Site
The Field Report of the Thomson-Ziegler Andean Research Expedition 2003 which rediscovered Llactapata.
Lost Inca Outpost
Could the mountain stronghold of Qoriwayrachina also have been the home of an earlier, as yet unknown people? An expedition probes the intriguing ruins of Cerro Victoria. A National Geographic article by Peter Frost, one of the men behind the discovery.
City Occupied by Inca Discovered on Andean Peak in Peru
The National Geographic Society funded the expedition to Cerro Victoria where the ruins where discovered.
Peru's new Machu Picchu
Peter Frost, one of the leaders of the team that discovered Corihuayrachina said the site holds evidence that could shake up theories of Inca expansion. BBC, 19 March 2002.
Explorers find last stronghold of the Inca
More on the discovery of the ruins on a peak known as Cerro Victoria. Daily Telegraph, 19 March 2002.
Major Inca site discovered in Peru
The site was so important to the Incas that they built a 5-mile-long aqueduct to bring water to the barren Mount Victoria. San Francisco Chronicle, March 19, 2002.
Major new Inca site discovered
The official announcement by the Royal Geographical Society of the discovery of Cota Coca.
Cota Coca Reconnaissance Project
A Report by Gary Ziegler and Hugh Thomson, leaders of the expedition that made the discovery.
Explorers uncover Incan 'lost city'
News of the discovery of Cota Coca hidden in a remote mountain jungle 50 km southwest of Machu Picchu, BBC, 7 May 2002.

The Search for Paititi and El Dorado

Search for Inca 'lost city' in Amazon may endanger indigenous people
A six-week expedition starting in July will try to find Paititi in the Megantoni National Sanctuary in south-east Peru. Guardian, 7 April 2014.
Peru's "Lost City" Is a Natural Formation, Experts Rule
Stone structures in Peru that were recently suggested to be the ruins of an ancient "lost city" are actually the result of natural forces, not Inca handiwork, officials say. National Geographic News, February 25, 2008.
Ancient "Lost City" Discovered in Peru, Official Claims
Ruins recently discovered in southern Peru could be the ancient "lost city" of Paititi, according to claims that are drawing serious but cautious response from experts. National Geographic News January 16, 2008.
The Ruins of Great Paititi Have Been Found
Describes claims by Sigfried Trippolt that the ruins of Paititi have been found in Bolivia.
Gran Païtiti
An extensive, bilingual site (in French and Spanish) about the search for Païtiti.
Paititi: in search of ancient ruins east of the Andes
A team consisting of Gregory Deyermenjian, Goyo and Gavino Toledo, Angel and others, have conducted various searches for Paititi since 1984. This is an account of their progress and discoveries so far.
The Paititi Expedition
An article from the website of Jacek Palkiewicz, the Italo-Polish reporter and explorer who had long searched for Paititi and planned the expedition in 2002 after two previous visits to the same area and the discovery of a 16th-century manuscript in the Vatican ostensibly proving that El Dorado had been discovered by Jesuit missionaries.
Did El Dorado Exist?
According to Mario Polia, an Italian archaeologist, El Dorado and Paititi were the same. Polia discovered discovered an ancient document that describes a city with walls covered in gold leaf that was evangelized by Jesuit missionaries.
The Ruins of Great Paititi Have Been Found
A team of Bolivian archaeologists have found ruins which may be those of Paititi. September 2, 2001.
Blashers under fire for 'worthless' expedition
Criticisms of Colonel Blashford-Snell's expedition which was accused of making unsubstantiated claims about having found a lost Inca city. Daily Telegraph, 13 January 2002.

The Incas and Other Andean Civilisations

Pyramid in Peru torn down by developers
Real estate developers using heavy machinery tore down a 20ft (6m) tall pyramid at at El Paraiso,one of Peru's oldest archaeological sites. Guardian, 4 July 2013.
Inca Skeletons Show Evidence of Spanish Brutality
If bones could scream, a bloodcurdling din would be reverberating through a 500-year-old cemetery in Peru. Human skeletons unearthed there have yielded the first direct evidence of Inca fatalities caused by Spanish conquerors scientists report in the March 23 2010 issue of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
Ancient Peruvian Nazca turned land to desert
Lessons to be learned from Nazca civilisation, which exposed itself to floods after mass deforestation, research says. Guardian, 2 November 2009.
Information on the Incas
A useful guide to the history of the Incas, their rulers, and the distinctive characteristics of their culture.
Towers point to ancient Sun cult
The oldest solar observatory in the Americas has been found. It comprises a group of 2,300-year-old structures, known as the Thirteen Towers, which are found in the Chankillo archaeological site, Peru. The towers probably functioned as a calendar. BBC, 1 March 2007.
4,000-Year-Old Temple, Mural Found in Peru
Carbon dating tests and excavation of a pre-Incan temple indicate that it was built 4,000 years ago by an advanced civilization. Associated Press November 11, 2007.
Incas Intoxicated Sacrificial Children in Preparation for Death
Chemical analyses of the hair of the children show that all three received coca leaves (from which cocaine is derived) and alcohol before they died. Scientific American, July 30, 2013.
Mummified Inca child sacrifice gives up her secrets
When the Llullaillaco Maiden was unearthed in 1999, the lump of coca in her teeth and her icy mountaintop tomb were the only clues that she was part of an Inca child sacrifice ritual 500 years ago. Now the latest studies of her perfectly preserved body offer an unprecedented glimpse into her life in the months leading up to her death. New Scientist, 29 July 2013.
Mummy of Tattooed Woman Discovered in Peru Pyramid
Archaeologists from Peru and the U.S. have discovered an exquisitely preserved and elaborately tattooed mummy of a young Moche woman deep inside a mud-brick pyramid in northern Peru. National Geographic, May 16, 2006.
Contains slide shows, news features and a multimedia presentation of the mummies at Puruchuco. You can view an online documentary and even unwrap a mummy bundle.
Mummy trove found in Peru
Archaeologists have discovered thousands of mummies in a shanty town close to Lima. BBC, 17 April 2002.
Search for living relatives of Inca child sacrifices
Studies of the DNA of Inca mummies, including sacrificed children, and modern Peruvians are underway. Daily Telegraph, 13 May 2002.
The White Rock by Hugh Tomson
Hugh Tomson is a writer and film maker who has written a major new book about the Incas, The White Rock, and has also edited a critical edition of Lost City of the Incas by Hiram Bingham, the discoverer of the ruins of Machu Picchu.
Ice Mummies of the Incas
Information, with photographs, about the sacrificial mummies found on the summit of Sara Sara in Peru in September 1996.
Inca Architecture
An account of its characteristic features with links to illustrative photographs.
Incas & Conquistadors
A very informative website created out of a personal fascination for the mighty and mysterious Inca Empire and its fate.
Michael Wood's Journey in the Footsteps of the Conquistadors
An account of the travels by Michael Wood through Peru in connection with his television series about the history of the Conquistadors.
Sixpac Manco
The web site of Vincent Lee who is the author of a number of books on Inca and Chachapoyas architecture and ruins.
Descendants of the Incas
This site contains a wealth of writings and photography about people living today near the city of Cuzco, Peru. It was the capital of the Inca empire and is close to Machu Picchu.
Inca Tax Records Were Tied Up in Knots, Study Says
A new study by anthropologist Gary Urton and mathematician Carrie Brezine at Harvard University shows that khipus were used as documents in a sophisticated accounting system passed up through the Inca bureaucracy. (The article is based on work reported by Urton and Brezine in the August 12, 2005 issue of Science magazine).
Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records
An article Gary Urton based on his book of the same title.
Talking Knots of the Inka
An article about a recently discovered manuscript, supposedly dating from the 17th century, explaining the function of the quipus, or knotted strings used by the Incas for keeping records.
Inca Construction Techniques - A Hypothesis new!
A website created to publicise and explain the hypothesis of Chris Honeyands regarding the machining, vitrification and construction of large stone blocks in Peru, Egypt and many other locations.
Geometry from the Land of the Incas
A Peruvian site with Euclidean geometry problems accompanied by proofs, animation and sound (Poncelet, Napoleon, Eyeball, Steiner, Carnot, Sangaku, Morley, Langley and the Butterfly Theorem) as well as Inca Geometry (Cuzco, Machu Picchu, Incan Quipu, Nazca Lines, Lord of Sipan). Click on the Inca links to get movies and photos of geometry concepts the Incas used in building their temples and artifacts.
Lost Crops of the Incas
Little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation.
Inti Raimi, Festival of the Sun
Photographs of the modern Inti Raimi Festival held on the southern hemisphere's Winter Solstice every year plus information about the original Inti Raimi in prehispanic times, by James Q. Jacobs.
Quechua Language Homepage
Information about the language that was spoken by the Incas and that is used by millions of their descendants today. The site is maintained by Barry Brian Werger.
Quechua - the Language of the People who Built Machu Picchu
A rich source of information about Quechua and other Andean languages.
Anton Benesz (Benesh) - last Inka prince
Did the treasure of the last Inca rebel end up in Poland?
The Polish President on the castle in Niedzica and Princess Umina
A Word File containing translations of various public speeches and addresses including a toast by Mr. Aleksander Kwasniewski, President of the Republic of Poland, during the official supper given in honour of Mr. Alberto Fujimoro, President of the Republic of Peru Warsaw, 10th September, 1998, translated by Chester A. Kisiel.
Sebastián Berzeviczy, Niedzica Castle and the Inca Princess
More information about the claimed connection between Poland and the last of the Inca rebels.
Peruvian citadel is site of earliest ancient solar observatory in the Americas
An ancient solar observatory at Chankillo, Peru is the oldest in the Americas with alignments covering the entire solar year, according to an article in the March 2 issue of Science. The authors of the article are Ivan Ghezzi from Yale University in the United States and the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, together with Professor Clive Ruggles of the University of Leicester in England.
Raiders of the Lost Tomb
How Dr. Walter Alva, Director of the Bruning Museum, saved the Moche treasures of the Lord of Sipan.
Lost city of "cloud people" found in Peru
Archaeologists have discovered a lost city carved into the Andes Mountains by the mysterious Chachapoya tribe. Daily Telegraph, 3 December 2008.
Vast "Cloud Warrior" Ruin Found in Amazon
Discovered in a surprising location on the eastern slope of the Andes mountains in northern Peru, a vast ruin is shedding light on the ancient Chachapoya civilization known for taking on the Inca Empire. National Geographic, January 19, 2007.
Tombs of Peru's Cloud People
Information from the National Geographic website with links to other sites.
Sacred City of Caral-Supe
The 5000-year-old 626-hectare archaeological site of The Sacred City of Caral-Supe is situated on a dry desert terrace overlooking the green valley of the Supe river. It dates back to the Late Archaic Period of the Central Andes and is the oldest centre of civilization in the Americas.
Images of Archaeological Sites in Peru
By Clive Ruggles, Senior Lecturer in the School of Archaeological Studies, Leicester University.
South & MesoAmerican Archeology
A collection of links on the ruins of the civilizations of the New World.
Pre-Inca tombs and archaeological remains found in Peru's Colca canyon
A scientific expedition, made up of Polish, North American, and Peruvian specialists, discovered tombs, apparently from the Pre-Incan culture, as well as archaeological remains in Peru's Colca canyon. September 4, 2008.
Mummy discovered in Peruvian city
The mummified remains of a woman who died 500 years before the Incas have emerged from the rubble of an ancient tomb beneath the bustling streets of the Peruvian capital. Daily Telegraph, 27 August 2008.

Andean Music

Markama, meaning "to the people" in the Quechua language, is a folk music group formend in Mendoza, Argentina in 1975.
Pablo Salcedo
The website of an acknowledged master of traditional Andean instruments.


Hiking to Gocta Falls, and avoiding the siren's call
It is amazing that one of the world's tallest waterfalls was unkown to the outside world until March 2006 when Stefan Ziemendorff from Germany announced the results of his measurements of their height. An article by Jessie Kwak, with photos by Robert Kittilson.
Obituary of Ross Salmon
A distinguished writer, broadcaster, war hero and explorer who pursued his theories about the origins of civilisation in South America over three decades and four expeditions.
Sebastian Snow, Eccentric English Explorer, Dies at 72
Sebastian Snow was an eccentric English explorer who helped confirm the source of the Amazon River as he bumbled about vast portions of South America singing the "Eton Boating Song. Christian Bonington, the mountaineer and explorer who made some trips with him, called Mr. Snow "the last of a fast-dying breed of true amateur adventurers." New York Times, May 13, 2001.
Captain Loren McIntyre
Today, a small monument at 17,200 feet elevation in the Peruvian Andes marks Laguna McIntyre, uppermost source of the Amazon River, discovered in 1971 on an expedition sponsored by the National Geographic and the Inter-American Geodetic Survey. The web page contains brief information about his life and work.
Explorers Pinpoint Source of the Amazon
Long a subject of argument and speculation, the source of the Amazon River has now been pinpointed by a five-nation National Geographic expedition on a slope of Nevado Mismi - a 18,363-foot-high (5,597-meter) mountain in southern Peru. National Geographic News December 21, 2000.

Thor Heyerdahl and the Kon Tiki

Explorer Thor Heyerdahl dies
An obituary from the BBC. 18 April 2002.
Thor Heyerdahl
Bold explorer who risked his life in reed boats to prove idiosyncratic theories of how early man crossed the seas. The Guardian, April 19, 2002.
Thor Heyerdahl, once shunned by scientific establishment, hailed today by some as visionary
An article on his career as an explorer and scientist.
Thor Heyerdahl's Expeditions and Archaeology of the Pacific Peoples
An outline of Norwegian archaeologist and explorer's career and his controversial theories about pre-Columbian contacts between Peru and Polynesia and between the Old World and the New.
Kon Tiki Museum
The museum's web server has accounts of recent research into the possibility of contacts between Peru and Polynesia in pre-Columbian times as well as accounts of Thor Heyerdahl's work.
Thor Heyerdahl Expeditions and Archaeology of the Pacific Peoples
More information on his work and links to related sites.

Gene Savoy

Gene Savoy Home Page
Gene Savoy has discovered no fewer than 43 lost cities in Peru! These include not only Inca sites but, even more importantly, huge ruins built by the the Chachapoyas who were conquered by the Incas just a few decades before the Incas were themselves conquered by the Spaniards. He is also a strong advocate of the view that there were contacts by sea between the civilizations of Peru and those of central America, Europe and Asia.
Explorer Finds Lost City in the Peruvian Jungle
Gene Savoy has found yet another lost city. He believes the ruins he has found are almost certainly the city of Cajamarquilla, built by the Chachapoya people. The Times, June 6, 2000.
Andean Explorers Foundation and Ocean Sailing Club
Details of the extraordinary journeys of explorer Gene Savoy and his crew on the ill-fated ship Feathered Serpent III-Opir as they sailed the seven seas in an attempt to confirm their theories of cultural exchange among ancient peoples.

Colonel John Blashford-Snell

Lost Inca world, with a grunting fish on the side
A lost world of 5,000ft-deep canyons, Inca ruins and grunting fish has been uncovered in an epic journey along one of the last unexplored rivers in South America. John Blashford-Snell,led a team of scientists and archeologists along a 250-mile uncharted stretch of the Rio Grande in Bolivia. Sunday Times, August 8, 2004.
The Kota Mama Expedition
The Scientific Exploration Society is making an expedition under the leadership of Col John Blashford-Snell which aims to show that traditional reed boats of ancient design could have been used to navigate the inland waterways of South America for purposes of trade and exploration; possibly crossing the Atlantic Ocean from west to east by a trade route under the Cape of Good Hope and via the Indian Ocean to the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.
Atlantis in Bolivia?
Claims that the Bolivian Altiplano, of all places, was the site of Plato's Atlantis have attracted the attentions of the explorer Col. Blashford-Snell.

Percy Harrison Fawcett

The Continuing Chronicles of Colonel Fawcett
Information about Fawcett's search for the lost city, "Z".
The Great Web of Percy Harrison Fawcett
An official non-profit website, entirely involved in a research to find significant evidence and elements of vital importance regarding the destiny of the British explorer Colonel Percy Harrison Fawcett and his mysterious disappearance in the Brazilian wilderness of Mato Grosso while he was in search for his Great Objective, a highly advanced subterranean civilization.

Other Claimed Evidence for Trans-Oceanic Contacts

First Americans May Have Come From Australia
Silvia Gonzalez from John Moores University in Liverpool makes the claim on basis of skulls and other evidence. 1 February 2005.
The Diffusionists have landed
You've probably heard of those crackpot theories about ancient Phoenicians or Chinese in the New World. Maybe it's time to start paying attention. An article from Atlantic Online by Marc K. Stengel
Polynesian Pathways
A long article by Peter Marsh reviewing possible evidence of contacts between Polynesia and western Canada, and also more briefly with South America.
In Plain Sight: Old World Records in Ancient America
The website of Gloria Farley who spent years gathering evidence, including a wide variety of artifacts and inscriptions, that she claimed provide proof contact with the Old World.
Trans Pacific Contacts?
A web page by Dr. Mike Xu, Texas Christian University on similarities between the civilisations of Ancient China and Central America.
Explorer from China who 'beat Columbus to America'
According to Gavin Menzies, a former submarine commanding officer who has spent 14 years charting the movements of a Chinese expeditionary fleet between 1421 and 1423, the eunuch admiral, Zheng He, made the first circumnavigation of the world, beating the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan by a century.
Mysterious Strangers : New Findings About the First Americans
An article by Graham Hancock who is well-known for his controversial views on the origins of civilization.
On Chikens and Maize
A partial archive of discussions on alleged pre-Columbian trans-oceanic diffusion in sci.archaeology.mesoamerican and sci.archaeology.
Carthaginians in the New World: a radical theory
An article by Roy Decker reviewing evidence of a possible discovery of America by Carthaginian sailors.
Did the Phoenicians discover the New World?
Mark McMenamin, a geologist at Mount Holyoke, claims that gold coins minted in Carthage between 350 and 320 BC have a design incorporating a map of the ancient world, including the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and the land mass representing the Americas.
The Voyage of Brendan the Navigator
According to old Irish tales St Brendan made a voyage to the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and North America sometime in the 6th century.
African Presence In America Before Columbus
Discusses claims that there were various voyages from Africa to America before the time of Columbus.
Muslims in the Americas before Columbus
An article by Dr. Youssef Mroueh claiming that that Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived in the Americas at least five centuries before Co1umbus.
Did American Clams Sail to Europe on Viking Ships?
Shells from American clams found off the coast of Denmark have been carbon dated to 1245.
Project Leif 2000
The year 2000 was the thousandth anniversary of Leif Eriksson's voyage from Greenland to North America and of the introduction of Christianity to Greenland.
The Last Viking
Claims that the Vikings voyaged far more extensively in North America than is generally believed.
A website devoted to investigating whether there is any truth in the legends that attribute the discovery of America to Prince Madoc Ab Owain Gwynedd of Wales.
New row over who discovered America
Claims that the real Madoc who sailed to America did so in the 6th century, not the 12th. Western Mail, 9th March 2004.
Evidence Britons Were In The US In The 6th Century
Grave mounds found in the American mid West, including those at Bat Creek, Tennessee, are claimed to be ancient British in origin and design.
Prince Henry Sinclair
The Earl of Orkney who is said to have sailed to Nova Scotia in 1398 and Massachusetts in 1399, nearly a century before Columbus' first voyage.

Peru in General

Living in Peru
Peru's official news portal and directory for foreigners living in Peru, business travellers and local individuals.
Travel Advice for British Citizens : Peru
Official advice provided by the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
Peru : US Consular Information Sheet
Advice for American travellers from the US State Department.
Travel Information Report for Canadian Citizens
Information provided by Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.
Peru Rail
Information about routes, train timetables etc.
The Rise and Fall of Alberto Fujimori
He saved Peru from terrorism and hyperinflation but became an exile in Japan after his right hand man was implicated in bribery, money laundering, arms trafficking and human rights abuses
Peru meteorite may rewrite rules
A meteorite which ploughed into the Peruvian countryside last year should have shattered and dispersed long before reaching the ground. BBC, 12 March 2008
Scientists discover new species of cloud-forest rodent
A strikingly unusual animal was has been recognised from the cloud-forests of Peru. The large rodent is about the size of a squirrel and looks a bit like one although its closest relatives are spiny rats. Wildlife Extra, January 2007.
Touching the Void
A review of the film based on the book by Joe Simpson recounting the incredible story of how he survived a horrific fall in the Peruvian Andes.
Travel Photo Net - Peru Pictures
An impressive set of photographs of various places in Peru, including Cusco and Machu Picchu.
The Pongo de Mainique Adventure Trek
A journal with many photographs of a trip starting from Cusco, going through the Sacred Valley of the Incas, and across the glaciers of the Vilcabamba Mountain Range down to the Urubamba and the Pongo Canyon.
Peru Reference Desk
A large collection of links maintained as part of the Latin American Studies Virtual Library.
Peru Links
This is claimed to be the most extensive collection of Peru links on the Internet. It is certainly very extensive.
Peru Travel Guide
Part of a large website devoted to travel in Latin America. The Peruvian section naturally includes pages about Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail as well as other destinations in the country.
Adventures in South America
Pictures and stories of lost cities, forgotten tribes and uncharted rainforests: Machu Picchu, the Tambopata reserve, the floating islands of Los Uros and more. A must-see for all travel lovers.
Photographs by Jeremy Woodhouse
A professional photographer's site with pictures from all over the world. (Use the search facility to search for Peru). The Peruvian section covers wildlife, scenery, cities, and Inca ruins.
Virtual Peru
Describes the different regions of Peru, the country's history, its culture and people. The site includes many photographs.
Introducing Peru
Part of the Lonely Planet website.
The Peru Explorer
An online guide to Peru including, of course, Machupicchu.
Machu Picchu Virtual Tour & 11 Interesting Facts About the Inca Citadel, Peru
This virtual tour of Mach Picchu is by Julien Mordret whose Exploration Junkie blog also contains pages with photos devoted to numerous other interesting places around the world including other places in Peru.
Virtual Tour of Machu Picchu
A navigable panorama of the ruins.
Cusco Travel Guide
The guide is produced by an organisation dedicated to all the activities involved with the tourism in Peru.
Qosqo, Inkas' sacred capital
A homage to Cusco, the mystical, magical, most famous and oldest living city of the American continent.
About Cusco
A detailed guide to the city and its surroundings, full of useful information for tourists.
The South American Explorers Club
A natural starting point for travellers seeking information.
Andrys' Peru PhotoDiary
It covers the Colca Canyon, Arequipa, Lake Titicaca, Cuzco, the Sacred Vally, and Machu Picchu.
Cultures of the Andes
Music, poetry and language are just some of the subjects covered by this site. In addition there is a large well-categorised collection of links to other sites on the people, history, current affairs, culture and landscape of the Andes.
The Peruvian Cactus and Succulent Society
Information about Peruvian cacti. This is part of the Cactus and Succulent Plant Mall, maintained by Suzanne and Tony Mace.
Peruvian Graffiti
An excellent guide to life in modern Peru by Michael L. Smith, an American journalist who spent many years in the country and is married to a Peruvian. Recommended to anyone who wishes to gain an insight into the profound social and political changes of the past couple of decades.
Rumbos Magazine
The online version of a marvellous bilingual Spanish/English magazine on Peru. If you are interested in Peru, whether you know any Spanish or not, you should read this magazine. Better still, order the printed version so you don't need a computer to read it!
The life of a novelist in Peru
In an interview with HarperCollins Linda Davies discusses her experiences in Peru and the inspiration they provided for her thriller Into the Fire.
Hotels in Peru
A guide to accommodation.

Fund-Raising Treks, Charities etc.

Charity Challenge treks to Machu Picchu
Charity Challenge is the UK's leading adventure travel company specialising exclusively in the organisation, leadership and administration of inspirational fundraising expeditions.
Discover Adventure Inca - Trail Trek
This organisation usually has several charity treks along the trail each year.

Travel Companies

Many different companies offer hikes along the Inca Trail. How do you chose between them. That is where IncaTrailz comes in. It was set up by Matt Tebbit, who after living in and travelling around Peru for many years settled in the Cusco area. IncaTrailz acts as locally based booking outlet for small and medium sized trekking companies based in the Cusco area with the goal of promoting sustainable tourism and local growth. As well as the classic Inca Trail, IncaTrailz also helps people to find other, less well known hikes in the region.
Tour Dust: Trek the Inca Trail in Peru
Tourdust offers cultural and adventure travel in various parts of the world, including Peru. Among their offerings are short trekking vacations to The Inca Trail which can also be combined with trips to other parts of Peru and Bolivia.
All Travel Peru
A very comprehensive one-stop shop for Peru travel products. In addition to Inca Trail treks the company offers trips to many other parts of Peru.
Toucan Travel
Toucan Travel offers an adventure travel Service for backpackers and other adventurers providing Travel Destinations all over the world, including Latin America, with the opportunity to check availability and book online or share bookmarks with friends.
Dragoman Inca Trail Peru Community Project and Machu Picchu
Dragoman Overland Adventure Travel gives travellers the chance to work with a local community and involve them in Dragoman's style of Peru trekking tour.
Explore Worldwide
I have been on several of Explore Worldwide's trips, e.g. to Bolivia, Cuba, the Lost World of Mt. Roraima in Venezuela and others in Asia, all of which I enjoyed immensely. They offer a number of different trips to Peru which include the Inca Trail.
Exodus also offer a variety of trips to Peru. Although I have not been on any of their Latin American trips I did go with them to Kenya and Tanzania in July/August 1998 to hike up Point Lenana on Mount Kenya, and Uhuru Peak on Kilimanjaro, the highest point in Africa. I made it and enjoyed the experience!
Journey Latin America
This is the firm that I used on my first trip to Peru and Bolivia and also on my second Inca Trail hike. Thoroughly recommended!
Peruvian Sacred - Tour Operator
A Peruvian tour operator offering a variety of trips in the Cusco and Machu Picchu area including hiking trips along the Inca Trail and alternative trails.
Andean Trails
A UK based tour operator, running small group and tailor-made treks, climbs, Amazon trips, mountain biking trips throughout Peru and Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
Amazonas Explorer
Amazonas Explorer is designed for small groups, from as few as four to a maximum of sixteen. It offers trekking, rafting, canoeing, mountain biking, cultural tours, multi-activity, family adventures, exploratory expeditions or customised adventures in Peru and Bolivia.
InkaNatura Travel
Natural History, birdwatching and archaeological programs in Peru including Chachapoyas and Kuelap. Many rainforest lodges and tented camps in Manu, Tambopata and Pongo de Mainique areas. The firm is recommended by leading guidebooks.
Machu Picchu Mysteries
The website of a Peruvian company. In addition to information about their trips there are many pictures of interesting places in the vicinity, including of course Machu Picchu itself.
Santa Cruz Expeditions
A company based in Huaraz that that provides guided mountaineering expeditions, treks, support staff, equipment, maps etc.
Tribes Fair Trade Travel
A UK-based company offering a variety of trips to Peru, among other destinations. It also offers help to individuals or groups wanting to plan their own itinerary.
Trips Worldwide
A firm that arranges tailor-made holidays in Latin America and the Caribbean. They won the best travel website award in 2003 from the Guardian and the Observer.
Tourismo Inkaiko
A website provides extensive information about Peru by a firm that arranges trips to all parts of the country, and also the neighbouring Andean countries, Bolivia and Ecuador.
This company's founder is Gary Ziegler, the well-known archaeologist, some of whose papers are listed on this page, and author of the book Beyond Machu Picchu. The website is especially interesting because it contains research reports on the recent expeditions that Gary Ziegler has arranged.
Andes Adventures
This company offers both treks and, for the exceptionally energetic, running adventures including a run along the Inca Trail - or a race for those who want to compete.
Latin American Escapes, Inc.
A US-based company specializing in adventure, natural history and cultural tours and expeditions throughout Latin America and offer fully escorted trips, customized itineraries, and "hosted" independent trips.
Wildland Adventures
A US-based eco-tourism company.
Peru Expeditions Overland
A Peruvian-based company organising a wide range of trips.
Vilaya Tours
An adventure travel company based in Chachapoyas specialising in trips to places in that region, including the immense ruins of Kuelap, one of the largest stone structures in the world.

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[ Into the Fire - a novel including action on the Inca Trail ]
[ What is it like to Hike the Inca Trail? ]
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Roy Davies - last updated 13 March 2022.