Mysterious Machu Picchu and Peru
Here, below you will find links to other sources on the Inca Trail and Machu Picchu,
the Incas, possible contacts between ancient Peru and other civilizations,
archaeological sites, Peru in general, adventure travel companies, and newsgroups for
discussing hiking the Inca Trail.
Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail
- The Inca Trail to Machu
- First, my own Inca Trail home page, just in case you have
arrived at this page of links by some other route!
- It has photographs and notes on the ruins seen along the trail, accounts of two
hikes eight years apart and the changes that I observed, and details of a novel - Into the Fire - a thriller set in London and Peru which includes episodes on the Inca Trail and in Machu Picchu! It is now also available as an ebook!
- Explore the Inca Trail by Jacquetta
Megarry and Roy Davies.
- A handy, extensively illustrated guide published by Rucksack Readers. Now in
its second edition. It may be ordered from the Rucksack Readers website or from Amazon.co.uk, the
British branch of Amazon, or Amazon.com in North
- The Inca Trail
by Richard Danbury.
detailed and thorough guidebook to the Inca Trail.
- Cusco &
the Inca Trail Heartland by Ben Box & Steve Frankham.
- A guide to the Cusco area in general, including the Machu Picchu and various
- Machu Picchu: A Civil
Engineering Marvel by Kenneth R. Wright and Alfredo Valencia Zegarra.
- Machu Picchu is more than a mysterious, ancient city. It is also an extraordinary
civil engineering achievement.
- The Machu Picchu
Guidebook: a self-guided tour by Ruth M. Wright and Alfredo Valencia
- An almost step-by-step tour which explains the significance of the various
buildings helping the visitor to gain a deeper insight and greater appreciation of
this remarkable place. It is available from Amazon (click on the link above) and also
For a description in fiction, see Into the Fire, a thriller with a number of chapters set on the
Inca Trail and in Machu Picchu.
- The Inca Trail to Machu
- This Inca Trail site's home page.
- Rucksack Readers'
Inca Trail Forum
- This forum, hosted by Rucksack Readers, is one of a number devoted to different
parts of the world, where individuals can discuss particular hikes and trails.
Machu Picchu’s centenary celebration to be viewed by 500 million
- The centennial celebration of the discovery of the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu
which will be held on July 7th 2011 in the Incan citadel will be broadcast via
satellite. The ceremony will be opened by Peruvian Nobel Prize laureate Mario Vargas
the Clouds to Machu Picchu
- A photo gallery of the legendary citadel perched among peaks that seem to touch
Rages in Peru: Was a Lost City Ever Lost?
- New evidence suggests that other people might have visited the ruins of Machu
Picchu long before their rediscovery by Hiram Bingham. New York Times, December 7,
- Rediscover Machu Picchu
- A travel guide to one of the world's most mysterious and spectacular
archaeological sites. In addition to information about the ruins, Inca history and
civilisation the website also contains practical travel information and links to
- UNESCO sends mission to assess the
state of conservation of Machu Picchu World Heritage Site
- UNESCO sent a mission to the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, Peru, in view of
concerns by the World Heritage Committee for the conservation of this outstanding
Andean archaeological centre and its natural environment. From 23 to 30 April 2007
the mission visited the site and met people in the region.
- Machu Picchu Travel Guide
- A wealth of information for everyone thinking of visiting Machu Picchu and the
New 7 Wonders of the World
- Machu Picchu was chosen as one of the new Seven Wonders.The results were
announced during the Official Declaration ceremony in Lisbon, Portugal on Saturday,
July 7, 2007
Machu Picchu voted No.1 wonder of the world
- The lost Inca city received over 50 per cent more votes than any other attraction
in a poll of Wanderlust magazine readers. 21 October 2005.
- Camino Inca: Inca Trail to Machu
- A major, non-commercial website for hikers and visitors to Machu Picchu
maintained by Jacob West.
- Camino Inca: Inca Trail to Machu
- A major, non-commercial website for hikers and visitors to Machu Picchu
maintained by Jacob West.
- Inca Trail Travel Guide
- A guide covering the Inca Trail and alternative routes to Machu Picchu.
acts to save Machu Picchu
- Prices of tickets to enter Machu Picchu, the ancient Inca site in Peru, were
increased by 50 per cent and tourist numbers were limited to 2,500 a day from January
2006, under plans proposed by the Peruvian Government. Alternative routes were to be
opened to reduce the numbers on the classic Inca Trail. Times, October 22, 2005.
plan to save lost Inca city
- The Peruvian government has come up with an emergency plan to preserve the
mountain-top Inca citadel Machu Picchu and the surrounding national park from the
ravages of too many tourists and possible landslides. Guardian, April 14, 2005.
- Inca Trail
Practical Information from Andean Travel
- A website full of the practical details that anyone planning a trip is likely to
require. Details of regulations, permits, typical prices, tour operators,
preparations for the trek, porter welfare all covered and there is also a general
Inca Trail Park Regulations
- Information about entrance fees, reservations etc.
The Inca Trail FAQ
- Some answers, provided by Angus McIntyre, to frequently asked questions.
the Inca Trail - A guide
- The guide is provided by Tourdust, a company that also arranges treks of the Inca
- The Inca Trail to Machu
- A ten minute YouTube video giving a day by day account of a trek along the trail
- Bridge stirs the
waters in Machu Picchu
- At the village Santa Teresa, about 10 miles from Machu Picchu, a new bridge, the
Carilluchayoc bridge over the Vilcanota River, has opened another route to Machu
Picchu. BBC 1 February 2007.
sounds final warning for Inca city
- Machu Picchu, may be placed on the United Nations list of endangered world
heritage sites. The UN has been told that mass tourism is endangering the citadel,
which was made a world heritage site in 1983. Guardian, June 30, 2004.
- An image meta-search engine which enables you to find plenty of photos of
Machu Picchu or of the Inca Trail.
Picchu Stock Photography from Go Graph
- A collection from Inca Trail Stock
Photographs is available from the same source.
stock photographs of Machu Picchu
- A collection from Can Stock
photographs of Machu Picchu
- A collection of photos from Fotosearch.
- Machu Picchu - 360 degree
- A website offering spectacular panoramic views from various vantage points. It
also includes an Inca Trail map.
- Peru mudslides
hit Machu Picchu
- Six people died and hundreds of tourists were stranded cut after mudslides at
Aguas Calientes near the historic ruins of Machu Picchu. BBC, 10 April 2004.
acts to protect Inca Trail
- An article about the impact of the new regulations. The Observer, April 28,
threat to Inca citadel
- The Peruvian National Institute of Culture is considering limiting the daily
number of visitors to the Inca citadel Machu Picchu to 500 - half the present number.
The Guardian October 29, 2003.
- A Tour to Machu
- An article by Alfredo Valencia Zegarra. It is part of the Cusco.net site which
also has a section on maps and the
Trail and Machu Picchu by Angus McIntyre.
- An excellent description of the Trail, with photographs.
- 20,000 Miles of
- A brief account of what it was like to be on the Inca Trail in weather so
atrocious that the authorities were forced to close the trail for the first time in
the national park's history.
- "Machu Picchu: Unveiling
the Mystery of the Incas," exhibition at the Peabody Museum
- Archaeologists at Yale believe construction on the site began around 1450 in the
reign of Pachacuti and it may have served as a country retreat for the royal family
and Inca nobility.
- Eliane Karp demands the
restitution of Peruvian heritage
- Peru's first lady Eliane Karp defended the right of the Peruvian state to demand
that Yale University return 5 thousand archaeological pieces extracted from Machu
Picchu. 15 March 2006.
Peru Tries to Recover Gold From Yale's Ivory Tower
- President Toledo - because of his Indian heritage but also on behalf of all
Peruvians - has made it a priority to recover the objects taken to Yale from Machu
Picchu by Hiram Bingham. Washington Post, March 9, 2006.
Machu Picchu - Peru - Inca City in the Sky
- A pictorial guide to Machu Picchu. Part of the section on Peru in the Open Travel
- Machu Picchu
: Unveiling the Mystery of the Incas
- An explanatory article written in connection with the exhibitiona at the Carnegie
Museum of Natural History, October 18, 2003 to January 4, 2004.
- Walking Through
Macchu Picchu with Whitman's Song in Mind
- An article comparing the poets Walt Whitman and Pablo Neruda. It contains
extracts in both Spanish and English from Neruda's famous poem, the Heights of
Macchu Picchu. (That was how Neruda spellt the name).
- Peru 'ignoring
threat' to Inca site
- Reactions to claims by Japanese scientists, originally reported in the New
Scientist, about the possible threat to Machu Picchu of landslides. BBC 23 June,
- Inca Trail and Peru Travel
- By David Gualtieri, based on a visit there in September 1997.
- Hiking the Inca Trail by Ric
- A good description with links to high-quality photographs of the places mentioned
in the text.
- Conserving the
- The Inca Trail receives over 70,000 visitors a year. Although the main body of
the trail system is taking the strain remarkably well a project to restore the eroded
sections and conserve the trail is planned by Mountain Path Repair
- The Inca Trail
- Information about the most spectacular marathon in South America. The site also
includes the results for the past few years.
- Machu Picchu
- Places of Peace and Power
- Photographs from a book on sacred sites by Martin Gray.
- Machu Picchu, Inca
Pachacuti's Sacred City: A multiple ritual, ceremonial and administrative
- A detailed paper by Gary Ziegler and J. McKim Malville on the functions of Machu
Picchu and its connections with Llactapata and other Inca sites.
- Machu Picchu
Abandoned: How the secret was kept
- An article by Gary Ziegler outlining recent theories about the origins and role
of Machu Picchu and why it was never found by the Conquistadors.
- The Historic Sanctuary of Machu
- Information from UNESCO.
- Machu Picchu:
¿Nuestro más preciado inmueble?
- A page in Spanish on the value of Machu Picchu. You can translate it
automatically by putting its address in Google's translation engine. As the
authors acknowledge the value of Machu Picchu be reckoned in purely econonomic terms.
But they claim that Peru could get more benefit from the visitors than it does at
Other Pre-Columbian Trails
Adventure Guide: Peru's Camino Salcantay
- The Camino Salcantay has begun to emerge as a popular alternative to the Inca
Trail. National Geographic Traveler, May/June 2009.
Afoot for Ancient Inca Trails
- Plans are being drawn up to restore other roads from the ancient Inca Empire to
entice tourists. National Geographic, August 17, 2004.
- The complex network of trails known as the Capac Ñan, which means "Great
Path" in Quechua, was a monumental project undertaken by the Incas. It consisted of
more than 30,000 kilometres of perfectly constructed trails. The article is in
- The Inca Trail to
- The trail to Machu Picchu is by no means the only surviving Inca road in Peru.
There is also on to the massive ruins of Kuelap, the city built by the
- Choquequirao - Machu
Picchu's Sacred Sister
- The city of Choquequirao was connected by a major Inca road to Vitcos. This
article is by By Gary Ziegler of Adventure Specialists.
- The Choquequirao Trail
- The website of a company specialising in treks to Choquequirao.
Playing second fiddle to Machu Picchu but not for much longer
- A travel blog article about a trek along the Choquequirao Trail.
- UCLA Team
Discovers Andean Trade Route, Clues to Origins of Civilization
- A team led by Charles Stanish has studied a 150-mile-long circuit through the
highlands of the Lake Titicaca Basin along which predecessors of the Inca as the
Qaluyu and Pucara peoples appear to have traded gold, feathers, pelts, honey,
hardwoods and herbal medicines.
- The Takesi
- One of a number of important Bolivian trails.
El Choro Trail
- A brief description of a hike along another ancient Bolivian trail.
- Bolivian Hikes
- Includes information about a number of ancient trails, e.g. the Madidi, Mapiri,
Choro, Takesi, and Yunga Cruza. (The Yunga Cruz trail in Bolivia is reputedly the
roughest and most impressive of the precolonial trail used by the Tiwanacu and Inca
Corihuayrachina, Cota Coca and Llactapata
The first two are so-called "lost cities" whose discovery was announced in 2002.
Koriwayrachina (as it would probably be spelt in according to Quechua rules, or
Corihuayrachina to use the Hispanic spelling), is one of the most publicised
archaeological discoveries in many years. However Gary Ziegler, who planned the
expedition to the
site, has stated that the discovery has been a bit overblown by the world press and
that the site is valuable for its scientific information but is not a "city".
Less than three months after the discovery of Qoriwayrachina (also spelt
Corihuayrachina) was announced it was revealed that a much larger Inca site
known as Cota Coca had been found. Both are in Vilcabamba, a relatively short distance
as the crow flies, from Machu Picchu. In November 2003 the Royal Geographical Society
announced that Thomson and Ziegler had rediscovered another lost city, Llactapata not
far from Machu Picchu. It is hoped that this latest discovery will shed new light on
Machu Picchu itself.
- Llactapata: the Re-Discovery
of an Inca Site
- The Field Report of the Thomson-Ziegler Andean Research Expedition 2003 which
- Lost Inca
- Could the mountain stronghold of Qoriwayrachina also have been the home of an
earlier, as yet unknown people? An expedition probes the intriguing ruins of Cerro
Victoria. A National Geographic article by Peter Frost, one of the men behind the
Occupied by Inca Discovered on Andean Peak in Peru
- The National Geographic Society funded the expedition to Cerro Victoria where the
ruins where discovered.
- Peru's new Machu
- Peter Frost, one of the leaders of the team that discovered Corihuayrachina said
the site holds evidence that could shake up theories of Inca expansion. BBC, 19 March
find last stronghold of the Inca
- More on the discovery of the ruins on a peak known as Cerro Victoria. Daily
Telegraph, 19 March 2002.
Major Inca site discovered in Peru
- The site was so important to the Incas that they built a 5-mile-long aqueduct to
bring water to the barren Mount Victoria. San Francisco Chronicle, March 19,
- Major new Inca site
- The official announcement by the Royal Geographical Society of the discovery of
- Cota Coca Reconnaissance
- A Report by Gary Ziegler and Hugh Thomson, leaders of the expedition that made
- Explorers uncover
Incan 'lost city'
- News of the discovery of Cota Coca hidden in a remote mountain jungle 50 km
southwest of Machu Picchu, BBC, 7 May 2002.
The Search for Paititi and El Dorado
- Peru's "Lost
City" Is a Natural Formation, Experts Rule
- Stone structures in Peru that were recently suggested to be the ruins of an
ancient "lost city" are actually the result of natural forces, not Inca handiwork,
officials say. National Geographic News, February 25, 2008.
- Ancient "Lost
City" Discovered in Peru, Official Claims
- Ruins recently discovered in southern Peru could be the ancient "lost city" of
Paititi, according to claims that are drawing serious but cautious response from
experts. National Geographic News January 16, 2008.
- The Ruins of
Great Paititi Have Been Found
- Describes claims by Sigfried Trippolt that the ruins of Paititi have been found
- Paititi exists
- The history of Paititi and attempts to find it.
- Gran Païtiti
- An extensive, bilingual site (in French and Spanish) about the search for
- Paititi: in search of ancient ruins east of the
- A team consisting of Gregory Deyermenjian, Goyo and Gavino Toledo, Angel and
others, have conducted various searches for Paititi since 1984. This is an account of
their progress and discoveries so far.
- The Paititi
- An article from the website of Jacek
Palkiewicz, the Italo-Polish reporter and explorer who had long searched for
Paititi and planned the expedition in 2002 after two previous visits to the same area
and the discovery of a 16th-century manuscript in the Vatican ostensibly proving that
El Dorado had been discovered by Jesuit missionaries.
- Did El Dorado
- According to Mario Polia, an Italian archaeologist, El Dorado and Paititi were
the same. Polia discovered discovered an ancient document that describes a city with
walls covered in gold leaf that was evangelized by Jesuit missionaries.
- The Ruins of
Great Paititi Have Been Found
- A team of Bolivian archaeologists have found ruins which may be those of Paititi.
September 2, 2001.
Blashers under fire for 'worthless' expedition
- Criticisms of Colonel Blashford-Snell's expedition which was accused of making
unsubstantiated claims about having found a lost Inca city. Daily Telegraph, 13
The Incas and Other Andean Civilisations
Skeletons Show Evidence of Spanish Brutality
- If bones could scream, a bloodcurdling din would be reverberating through a
500-year-old cemetery in Peru. Human skeletons unearthed there have yielded the first
direct evidence of Inca fatalities caused by Spanish conquerors scientists report in
the March 23 1010 issue of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
Ancient Peruvian Nazca turned land to desert
- Lessons to be learned from Nazca civilisation, which exposed itself to floods
after mass deforestation, research says. Guardian, 2 November 2009.
on the Incas
- A useful guide to the history of the Incas, their rulers, and the distinctive
characteristics of their culture.
- Towers point to ancient
- The oldest solar observatory in the Americas has been found. It comprises a group
of 2,300-year-old structures, known as the Thirteen Towers, which are found in the
Chankillo archaeological site, Peru. The towers probably functioned as a calendar.
BBC, 1 March 2007.
Temple, Mural Found in Peru
- Carbon dating tests and excavation of a pre-Incan temple indicate that it was
built 4,000 years ago by an advanced civilization. Associated Press November 11,
of Tattooed Woman Discovered in Peru Pyramid
- Archaeologists from Peru and the U.S. have discovered an exquisitely preserved
and elaborately tattooed mummy of a young Moche woman deep inside a mud-brick pyramid
in northern Peru. National Geographic, May 16, 2006.
- National Geographic Inca
- Contains slide shows, news features and a multimedia presentation of the mummies
at Puruchuco. You can view an online documentary and even unwrap a mummy bundle.
- Mummy trove found in
- Archaeologists have discovered thousands of mummies in a shanty town close to
Lima. BBC, 17 April 2002.
Search for living relatives of Inca child sacrifices
- Studies of the DNA of Inca mummies, including sacrificed children, and modern
Peruvians are underway. Daily Telegraph, 13 May 2002.
- The White Rock by Hugh Tomson
- Hugh Tomson is a writer and film maker who has written a major new book about the
Incas, The White Rock, and has also edited a critical edition of Lost City
of the Incas by Hiram Bingham, the discoverer of the ruins of Machu Picchu.
- Ice Mummies of the Incas
- Information, with photographs, about the sacrificial mummies found on the summit
of Sara Sara in Peru in September 1996.
- Inca Architecture
- An account of its characteristic features with links to illustrative
- Incas & Conquistadors
- A very informative website created out of a personal fascination for the mighty
and mysterious Inca Empire and its fate.
- Michael Wood's
Journey in the Footsteps of the Conquistadors
- An account of the travels by Michael Wood through Peru in connection with his
television series about the history of the Conquistadors.
- Sixpac Manco
- The web site of Vincent Lee who is the author of a number of books on Inca and
Chachapoyas architecture and ruins.
- Descendants of the Incas
- This site contains a wealth of writings and photography about people living today
near the city of Cuzco, Peru. It was the capital of the Inca empire and is close to
- Inca Tax
Records Were Tied Up in Knots, Study Says
- A new study by anthropologist Gary Urton and mathematician Carrie Brezine at
Harvard University shows that khipus were used as documents in a sophisticated
accounting system passed up through the Inca bureaucracy. (The article is based on
work reported by Urton and Brezine in the August 12, 2005 issue of Science
- Signs of the Inka
Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records
- An article Gary Urton based on his book of the same title.
- Talking Knots of
- An article about a recently discovered manuscript, supposedly dating from the
17th century, explaining the function of the quipus, or knotted strings used by the
Incas for keeping records.
- Geometry from the Land of the
- A Peruvian site with Euclidean geometry problems accompanied by proofs, animation
and sound (Poncelet, Napoleon, Eyeball, Steiner, Carnot, Sangaku, Morley, Langley and
the Butterfly Theorem) as well as Inca Geometry (Cuzco, Machu Picchu, Incan Quipu,
Nazca Lines, Lord of Sipan). Click on the Inca links to get movies and photos of
geometry concepts the Incas used in building their temples and artifacts.
- Lost Crops of the
- Little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation.
Civilization of the Incas
- An attractive and informative site which includes various school projects.
- Inti Raimi, Festival of
- Photographs of the modern Inti Raimi Festival held on the southern hemisphere's
Winter Solstice every year plus information about the original Inti Raimi in
prehispanic times, by James Q. Jacobs.
- Quechua Language Homepage
- Information about the language that was spoken by the Incas and that is used by
millions of their descendants today. The site is maintained by Barry Brian
- Quechua - the Language of the People who
Built Machu Picchu
- A rich source of information about Quechua and other Andean languages.
Benesz (Benesh) - last Inka prince
- Did the treasure of the last Inca rebel end up in Poland?
- The Polish
President on the castle in Niedzica and Princess Umina
- A Word File containing translations of various public speeches and addresses
including a toast by Mr. Aleksander Kwasniewski, President of the Republic of Poland,
during the official supper given in honour of Mr. Alberto Fujimoro, President of the
Republic of Peru Warsaw, 10th September, 1998, translated by Chester A. Kisiel.
Berzeviczy, Niedzica Castle and the Inca Princess
- More information about the claimed connection between Poland and the last of the
- Peruvian citadel is site of
earliest ancient solar observatory in the Americas
- An ancient solar observatory at Chankillo, Peru is the oldest in the Americas
with alignments covering the entire solar year, according to an article in the March
2 issue of Science. The authors of the article are Ivan Ghezzi from Yale University
in the United States and the Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, together with
Professor Clive Ruggles of the University of Leicester in England.
- Raiders of the Lost
- How Dr. Walter Alva, Director of the Bruning Museum, saved the Moche treasures of
the Lord of Sipan.
Lost city of "cloud people" found in Peru
- Archaeologists have discovered a lost city carved into the Andes Mountains by the
mysterious Chachapoya tribe. Daily Telegraph, 3 December 2008.
- Vast "Cloud
Warrior" Ruin Found in Amazon
- Discovered in a surprising location on the eastern slope of the Andes mountains
in northern Peru, a vast ruin is shedding light on the ancient Chachapoya
civilization known for taking on the Inca Empire. National Geographic, January 19,
- Chacha Picchu, New
Discoveries in Amazonas, Peru
- An account of recent archaeological discoveries in the Chachapoyas region.
of Peru's Cloud People
- Information from the National Geographic website with links to other sites.
- The city
of Caral: The oldest city in the New World is located in Peru
- The ancient city of Caral located in the north of Lima, Supe Valley, is
considered as the oldest city in the western Hemisphere. Radiocarbon dates show that
monumental architecture there was under construction as early as 2627 BC and until
about 2000 BC, in other words 4700 years old, contemporary with pyramids in Egypt and
the ziggurats of Mesopotamia.
- Images of
Archaeological Sites in Peru
- By Clive Ruggles, Senior Lecturer in the School of Archaeological Studies,
- South &
- A collection of links on the ruins of the civilizations of the New World.
- Pre-Inca tombs and
archaeological remains found in Peru's Colca canyon
- A scientific expedition, made up of Polish, North American, and Peruvian
specialists, discovered tombs, apparently from the Pre-Incan culture, as well as
archaeological remains in Peru's Colca canyon. September 4, 2008.
Mummy discovered in Peruvian city
- The mummified remains of a woman who died 500 years before the Incas have emerged
from the rubble of an ancient tomb beneath the bustling streets of the Peruvian
capital. Daily Telegraph, 27 August 2008.
- An Andean music store which sells instruments, recordings, books etc.
- Markama, meaning "to the people" in the Quechua language, is a folk music group
formend in Mendoza, Argentina in 1975.
- Pablo Salcedo
- The website of an acknowledged master of traditional Andean instruments.
Hiking to Gocta Falls, and avoiding the siren's call
- It is amazing that one of the world's tallest waterfalls was unkown to the
outside world until March 2006 when Stefan Ziemendorff from Germany announced the
results of his measurements of their height. An article by Jessie Kwak, with photos
by Robert Kittilson.
- Obituary of Ross
- A distinguished writer, broadcaster, war hero and explorer who pursued his
theories about the origins of civilisation in South America over three decades and
Snow, Eccentric English Explorer, Dies at 72
- Sebastian Snow was an eccentric English explorer who helped confirm the source of
the Amazon River as he bumbled about vast portions of South America singing the "Eton
Boating Song. Christian Bonington, the mountaineer and explorer who made some trips
with him, called Mr. Snow "the last of a fast-dying breed of true amateur
adventurers." New York Times, May 13, 2001.
- Captain Loren
- Today, a small monument at 17,200 feet elevation in the Peruvian Andes marks
Laguna McIntyre, uppermost source of the Amazon River, discovered in 1971 on an
expedition sponsored by the National Geographic and the Inter-American Geodetic
- Explorers Pinpoint
Source of the Amazon
- Long a subject of argument and speculation, the source of the Amazon River has
now been pinpointed by a five-nation National Geographic expedition on a slope of
Nevado Mismi - a 18,363-foot-high (5,597-meter) mountain in southern Peru. National
Geographic News December 21, 2000.
Thor Heyerdahl and the Kon Tiki
Thor Heyerdahl dies
- An obituary from the BBC. 18 April 2002.
- Bold explorer who risked his life in reed boats to prove idiosyncratic theories
of how early man crossed the seas. The Guardian, April 19, 2002.
Thor Heyerdahl, once shunned by scientific establishment, hailed today by some as
- An article on his career as an explorer and scientist.
- Thor Heyerdahl's Expeditions and
Archaeology of the Pacific Peoples
- An outline of Norwegian archaeologist and explorer's career and his controversial
theories about pre-Columbian contacts between Peru and Polynesia and between the Old
World and the New.
- Kon Tiki Museum
- The museum's web server has accounts of recent research into the possibility of
contacts between Peru and Polynesia in pre-Columbian times as well as accounts of
Thor Heyerdahl's work.
- Thor Heyerdahl Expeditions and
Archaeology of the Pacific Peoples
- More information on his work and links to related sites.
- Gene Savoy Home Page
- Gene Savoy has discovered no fewer than 43 lost cities in Peru! These include not
only Inca sites but, even more importantly, huge ruins built by the the Chachapoyas
who were conquered by the Incas just a few decades before the Incas were themselves
conquered by the Spaniards. He is also a strong advocate of the view that there were
contacts by sea between the civilizations of Peru and those of central America,
Europe and Asia.
Finds Lost City in the Peruvian Jungle
- Gene Savoy has found yet another lost city. He believes the ruins he has found
are almost certainly the city of Cajamarquilla, built by the Chachapoya people. The
Times, June 6, 2000.
- Andean Explorers Foundation and Ocean
- Details of the extraordinary journeys of explorer Gene Savoy and his crew on the
ill-fated ship Feathered Serpent III-Opir as they sailed the seven seas in an attempt
to confirm their theories of cultural exchange among ancient peoples.
Colonel John Blashford-Snell
- Lost Inca
world, with a grunting fish on the side
- A lost world of 5,000ft-deep canyons, Inca ruins and grunting fish has been
uncovered in an epic journey along one of the last unexplored rivers in South
America. John Blashford-Snell,led a team of scientists and archeologists along a
250-mile uncharted stretch of the Rio Grande in Bolivia. Sunday Times, August 8,
- The Kota Mama Expedition
- The Scientific Exploration Society is making an expedition under the leadership
of Col John Blashford-Snell which aims to show that traditional reed boats of ancient
design could have been used to navigate the inland waterways of South America for
purposes of trade and exploration; possibly crossing the Atlantic Ocean from west to
east by a trade route under the Cape of Good Hope and via the Indian Ocean to the
Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.
- Atlantis in
- Claims that the Bolivian Altiplano, of all places, was the site of Plato's
Atlantis have attracted the attentions of the explorer Col. Blashford-Snell.
Percy Harrison Fawcett
- The Continuing Chronicles of
- Information about Fawcett's search for the lost city, "Z".
- The Great Web of Percy Harrison
- An official non-profit website, entirely involved in a research to find
significant evidence and elements of vital importance regarding the destiny of the
British explorer Colonel Percy Harrison Fawcett and his mysterious disappearance in
the Brazilian wilderness of Mato Grosso while he was in search for his Great
Objective, a highly advanced subterranean civilization.
Other Claimed Evidence for Trans-Oceanic Contacts
- First Americans
May Have Come From Australia
- Silvia Gonzalez from John Moores University in Liverpool makes the claim on basis
of skulls and other evidence. 1 February 2005.
Diffusionists have landed
- You've probably heard of those crackpot theories about ancient Phoenicians or
Chinese in the New World. Maybe it's time to start paying attention. An article from
Atlantic Online by Marc K. Stengel
- Polynesian Pathways
- A long article by Peter Marsh reviewing possible evidence of contacts between
Polynesia and western Canada, and also more briefly with South America.
- In Plain Sight: Old World Records in
- The website of Gloria Farley who spent years gathering evidence, including a wide
variety of artifacts and inscriptions, that she claimed provide proof contact with
the Old World.
Crossings : Scientists Debate Who Sailed to the New World First
- Evidence from inscriptions in central America similar to those from the Shang
dynasty in China and pottery in south America similar to that of the Jomon period in
Japan suggest that Europeans may not have been the first to visit by sea.
Explorer from China who 'beat Columbus to America'
- According to Gavin Menzies, a former submarine commanding officer who has spent
14 years charting the movements of a Chinese expeditionary fleet between 1421 and
1423, the eunuch admiral, Zheng He, made the first circumnavigation of the world,
beating the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan by a century.
Strangers : New Findings About the First Americans
- An article by Graham Hancock who is well-known for his controversial views on the
origins of civilization.
of Hellenic Words in the Quechua Language
- Part of a website which claims there are similarities between Ancient Greek and
native languages in Peru and Hawaii.
- On Chikens
- A partial archive of discussions on alleged pre-Columbian trans-oceanic diffusion
in sci.archaeology.mesoamerican and sci.archaeology.
- Carthaginians in the New
World: a radical theory
- An article by Roy Decker reviewing evidence of a possible discovery of America by
- Did the Phoenicians discover the New
- Mark McMenamin, a geologist at Mount Holyoke, claims that gold coins minted in
Carthage between 350 and 320 BC have a design incorporating a map of the ancient
world, including the area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and the land mass
representing the Americas.
- The Voyage of Brendan the
- According to old Irish tales St Brendan made a voyage to the Faroe Islands,
Iceland, Greenland and North America sometime in the 6th century.
- African Presence In
America Before Columbus
- Discusses claims that there were various voyages from Africa to America before
the time of Columbus.
- Muslims in the Americas
- Claims that that Muslims from Spain and West Africa arrived in the Americas at
least five centuries before Co1umbus.
Did American Clams Sail to Europe on Viking Ships?
- Shells from American clams found off the coast of Denmark have been carbon dated
- Project Leif
- The year 2000 was the thousandth anniversary of Leif Eriksson's voyage from
Greenland to North America and of the introduction of Christianity to Greenland.
- The Last Viking
- Claims that the Vikings voyaged far more extensively in North America than is
- A website devoted to investigating whether there is any truth in the legends that
attribute the discovery of America to Prince Madoc Ab Owain Gwynedd of Wales.
New row over who discovered America
- Claims that the real Madoc who sailed to America did so in the 6th century, not
the 12th. Western Mail, 9th March 2004.
- Evidence Britons Were In The
US In The 6th Century
- Grave mounds found in the American mid West, including those at Bat Creek,
Tennessee, are claimed to be ancient British in origin and design.
- Prince Henry
- The Earl of Orkney who is said to have sailed to Nova Scotia in 1398 and
Massachusetts in 1399, nearly a century before Columbus' first voyage.
Peru in General
- Living in Peru
- Peru's official news portal and directory for foreigners living in Peru, business
travellers and local individuals.
Travel Advice for British Citizens : Peru
- Official advice provided by the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office.
- Peru : US
Consular Information Sheet
- Advice for American travellers from the US State Department.
Information Report for Canadian Citizens
- Information provided by Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International
- Information about routes, train timetables etc.
- The Rise and
Fall of Alberto Fujimori
- He saved Peru from terrorism and hyperinflation but became an exile in Japan
after his right hand man was implicated in bribery, money laundering, arms
trafficking and human rights abuses
- Peru meteorite may
- A meteorite which ploughed into the Peruvian countryside last year should have
shattered and dispersed long before reaching the ground. BBC, 12 March 2008
- Scientists discover new
species of cloud-forest rodent
- A strikingly unusual animal was has been recognised from the cloud-forests of
Peru. The large rodent is about the size of a squirrel and looks a bit like one
although its closest relatives are spiny rats. Wildlife Extra, January 2007.
- Touching the
- A review of the film based on the book by Joe Simpson recounting the incredible story of
how he survived a horrific fall in the Peruvian Andes.
- Travel Photo Net - Peru Pictures
- An impressive set of photographs of various places in Peru, including Cusco and
- The Pongo de
Mainique Adventure Trek
- A journal with many photographs of a trip starting from Cusco, going through the
Sacred Valley of the Incas, and across the glaciers of the Vilcabamba Mountain Range
down to the Urubamba and the Pongo Canyon.
- Peru Reference Desk
- A large collection of links maintained as part of the Latin American Studies Virtual Library.
- Peru Links
- This is claimed to be the most extensive collection of Peru links on the
Internet. It is certainly very extensive.
- Peru Travel Guide
- Part of a large website devoted to travel in Latin America. The Peruvian section
naturally includes pages about Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail as well as other
destinations in the country.
- Adventures in South
- Pictures and stories of lost cities, forgotten tribes and uncharted rainforests:
Machu Picchu, the Tambopata reserve, the floating islands of Los Uros and more. A
must-see for all travel lovers.
- Enjoy Peru
- Travel information about activities, destinations etc. with lots of
- Photographs by Jeremy
- A professional photographer's site with pictures from all over the world. (Use
the search facility to search for Peru). The Peruvian section covers wildlife,
scenery, cities, and Inca ruins.
- Virtual Peru
- Describes the different regions of Peru, the country's history, its culture and
people. The site includes many photographs.
- Part of the Lonely Planet website. In addition to material related to that in the
guidebook this site includes a forum with hints and advice from recent visitors to
- The Peru Explorer
- An online guide to Peru including, of course, Machupicchu.
- The Lost Cities Adventure:
- Navigable panoramas for those of you who have Quicktime Vr installed, and still
images for everyone else.
- Cusco Travel Guide
- The guide is produced by an organisation dedicated to all the activities involved
with the tourism in Peru.
- Qosqo, Inkas' sacred capital
- A homage to Cusco, the mystical, magical, most famous and oldest living city of
the American continent.
- About Cusco
- A detailed guide to the city and its surroundings, full of useful information for
- The South American Explorers
- A natural starting point for travellers seeking information.
- Andrys' Peru PhotoDiary
- It covers the Colca Canyon, Arequipa, Lake Titicaca, Cuzco, the Sacred Vally, and
- Cultures of the Andes
- Music, poetry and language are just some of the subjects covered by this site. In
addition there is a large well-categorised collection of links to other sites on the
people, history, current affairs, culture and landscape of the Andes.
- The Peruvian Cactus and
- Information about Peruvian cacti. This is part of the Cactus and Succulent Plant Mall, maintained by
Suzanne and Tony Mace.
- Peruvian Graffiti
- An excellent guide to life in modern Peru by Michael L. Smith, an American
journalist who spent many years in the country and is married to a Peruvian.
Recommended to anyone who wishes to gain an insight into the profound social and
political changes of the past couple of decades.
- Rumbos Magazine
- The online version of a marvellous bilingual Spanish/English magazine on Peru. If
you are interested in Peru, whether you know any Spanish or not, you should read this
magazine. Better still, order the printed version so you don't need a computer to
- The life
of a novelist in Peru
- In an interview with HarperCollins Linda Davies discusses her experiences in Peru
and the inspiration they provided for her thriller Into
- Hotels in Peru
- A guide to accommodation.
Fund-Raising Treks, Charities etc.
- Trek Machu Picchu
- Forthcoming sponsored fund raising treks in aid of Action Medical Research.
Challenge treks to Machu Picchu
- Charity Challenge is the UK's leading adventure travel company specialising
exclusively in the organisation, leadership and administration of inspirational
Adventure Inca - Trail Trek
- This organisation usually has several charity treks along the trail each
- Many different companies offer hikes along the Inca Trail. How do you chose between them. That is where IncaTrailz comes in. It was set up by Matt Tebbit, who after living in and travelling around Peru for many years settled in the Cusco area. IncaTrailz acts as locally based booking outlet for small and medium sized trekking companies based in the Cusco area with the goal of promoting sustainable tourism and local growth. As well as the classic Inca Trail, IncaTrailz also helps people to find other, less well known hikes in the region.
Dust: Trek the Inca Trail in Peru
- Tourdust offers cultural and adventure travel in various parts of the world,
including Peru. Among their offerings are short trekking vacations to The Inca Trail
which can also be combined with trips to other parts of Peru and Bolivia.
- All Travel Peru
- A very comprehensive one-stop shop for Peru travel products. In addition to Inca
Trail treks the company offers trips to many other parts of Peru.
- Toucan Travel offers an adventure travel Service for backpackers and other
adventurers providing Travel Destinations all over the world, including Latin
America, with the opportunity to check availability and book online or share
bookmarks with friends.
- Dragoman Inca Trail
Peru Community Project and Machu Picchu
- Dragoman Overland Adventure Travel gives travellers the chance to work with a
local community and involve them in Dragoman's style of Peru trekking tour.
- I have been on several of Explore Worldwide's trips, e.g. to Bolivia, Cuba, the
Lost World of Mt. Roraima in Venezuela and others in Asia, all of which I
enjoyed immensely. They offer a number of different trips to Peru which include the
- Exodus also offer a variety of trips to Peru. Although I have not been on any of
their Latin American trips I did go with them to Kenya and Tanzania in July/August
1998 to hike up Point Lenana on Mount Kenya, and Uhuru Peak on Kilimanjaro, the
highest point in Africa. I made it and enjoyed the experience!
- Journey Latin America
- This is the firm that I used on my first trip to Peru and Bolivia and also on my
second Inca Trail hike. Thoroughly recommended!
- Peruvian Sacred - Tour Operator
- A Peruvian tour operator offering a variety of trips in the Cusco and Machu
Picchu area including hiking trips along the Inca Trail and alternative trails.
- Andean Trails
- A UK based tour operator, running small group and tailor-made treks, climbs,
Amazon trips, mountain biking trips throughout Peru and Bolivia, Chile and
- Amazonas Explorer
- Amazonas Explorer is designed for small groups, from as few as four to a maximum
of sixteen. It offers trekking, rafting, canoeing, mountain biking, cultural tours,
multi-activity, family adventures, exploratory expeditions or customised adventures
in Peru and Bolivia.
- InkaNatura Travel
- Natural History, birdwatching and archaeological programs in Peru including
Chachapoyas and Kuelap. Many rainforest lodges and tented camps in Manu, Tambopata
and Pongo de Mainique areas. The firm is recommended by leading guidebooks.
- Machu Picchu Mysteries
- The website of a Peruvian company. In addition to information about their trips
there are many pictures of interesting places in the vicinity, including of course
Machu Picchu itself.
- Santa Cruz Expeditions
- A company based in Huaraz that that provides guided mountaineering expeditions,
treks, support staff, equipment, maps etc.
- Tribes Fair Trade Travel
- A UK-based company offering a variety of trips to Peru, among other destinations.
It also offers help to individuals or groups wanting to plan their own
- Trips Worldwide
- A firm that arranges tailor-made holidays in Latin America and the Caribbean.
They won the best travel website award in 2003 from the Guardian and the
- Tourismo Inkaiko
- A website provides extensive information about Peru by a firm that arranges trips
to all parts of the country, and also the neighbouring Andean countries, Bolivia and
- This company's founder is Gary Ziegler, the well-known archaeologist, some of
whose papers are listed on this page, and author of the book Beyond Machu
Picchu. The website is especially interesting because it contains research
reports on the recent expeditions that Gary Ziegler has arranged.
- Andes Adventures
- This company offers both treks and, for the exceptionally energetic, running
adventures including a run along the Inca Trail - or a race for those who want to
- Latin American Escapes,
- A US-based company specializing in adventure, natural history and cultural tours
and expeditions throughout Latin America and offer fully escorted trips, customized
itineraries, and "hosted" independent trips.
- Wildland Adventures
- A US-based eco-tourism company.
- Peru Expeditions Overland
- A Peruvian-based company organising a wide range of trips.
- Vilaya Tours
- An adventure travel company based in Chachapoyas specialising in trips to places
in that region, including the immense ruins of Kuelap, one of the largest stone
structures in the world.
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[ Into the Fire - a novel including action on the Inca
[ What is it like to Hike the Inca Trail? ]
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Roy Davies - last updated 8 March 2013.