"In no circumstances enter the derivatives trading market without first
agreeing it in writing with me ... at some time in the future it could bring
the world's financial system to its knees."
Memo, dated November 1990, to senior executives of the Cardiff-based Julian Hodge Bank, quoted in the Western Mail, Tuesday, February 28 1995.
"We view them as time bombs both for the parties that deal in them and the
economic system ... In our view ... derivatives are financial weapons of mass
destruction, carrying dangers that, while now latent, are potentially
The world's greatest stock market investor, known as "the Sage of Omaha", in his Chairman's Letter in the Berkshire Hathaway 2002 Annual Report.
Unlike Warren Buffet, Sir Julian Hodge, the Welsh banker, issued his apocalyptic warning three years before the first rash of derivatives disasters involving Metallgesellschaft, Orange County, Sears Roebuck, Proctor & Gamble, happened in 1994. More was to come in 1995 in the form of the Daiwa and Barings scandals. None of those on their own, however, threatened to bring the world financial system to its knees. Until recently the crisis that came closest to doing so involved LTCM in September 1998. Nearly 10 years later, in March 2008, the FED took emergency action to avoid what was called derivatives Chernobyl. That action seemed to have worked ... for a while, but the Credit Crunch has raised worries, could a mega-catastrophe lie around the corner ...?
Financial Derivatives Timeline
In European trade fairs sellers sign contracts promising future delivery of the items they sold.
What are Derivatives?
Derivatives are financial instruments that have no intrinsic value, but
derive their value from something else. They hedge the risk of owning things
that are subject to unexpected price fluctuations, e.g. foreign currencies,
bushels of wheat, stocks and government bonds. There are two main types:
futures, or contracts for future delivery at a specified price, and options
that give one party the opportunity to buy from or sell to the other side at a
Derivatives and Speculation
The job of a derivatives trader is like that of a bookie once removed, taking bets on people making bets.
The description above comes from In Into the Fire a
novel about fraudulent trading in derivatives (now out in a new
edition), by Linda Davies. Why
on earth should anyone want to be a bookie once removed? The answer was
given 63 years earlier by John Maynard Keynes in his best-known work.
Keynes on Speculation"Professional investment may be likened to those newspaper competitions in which the competitors have to pick out the six prettiest faces from a hundred photographs, the prize being awarded to the competitor whose choice most nearly corresponds to the average preferences of the competitors as a whole; so that each competitor has to pick, not the faces which he himself finds the prettiest, but those which he thinks likeliest to catch the fancy of the other competitors, all of whom are looking at the problem from the same point of view."
"It is not a case of choosing those which, to the best of one's judgment, are really the prettiest, nor even those which average opinion genuinely thinks the prettiest. We have reached the third degree when we devote our intelligences to anticipating what average opinion expects the average opinion to be. And there are some, I believe, who practise the fourth, fifth and higher degrees."
Keynes, John Maynard The general theory of employment, interest and money. London : Macmillan, St. Martin's Press, 1936. page 156.
Derivatives and the Nobel Prize for Economics
Although futures markets have existed in some form since at least the 17th century, modern futures markets developed in the 1850's with the opening of the Chicago Board of Trade. However, since the early 1970s financial futures markets dealing with currencies, shares and bonds have become much more important.
In 1971 the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates broke down when the US suspended the convertibility of the dollar to gold. In a world of (mainly) floating exchange rates exporters and importers faced new risks. A couple of years later the Black-Scholes Model for determining the value of options was published. Its use caught on quickly and by the 1990s many financial institutions involved with derivatives were employing mathematicians and physicists to design ever more sophisticated financial instruments.
In 1997 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (the Nobel Prize for economics) to Professor Robert C. Merton of Harvard University and Professor Myron S. Scholes of Stanford University, Stanford for their method of determining the value of derivatives.
Merton and Scholes, in collaboration with the late Fischer Black, developed
a pioneering formula for the valuation of stock options. Their methodology has
paved the way for economic valuations in many areas. It has also generated new
types of financial instruments and facilitated more efficient risk management
The $3.5 Billion Rescue of LTCM
Just a year after Merton and Scholes received the Nobel Prize for their work
a hedge fund in which they were among the principal shareholders, Long Term Capital Management, had
to be rescued at a cost of $3.5 billion dollars as it was feared that its
collapse could have had a disastrous effect on financial institutions around
The Paradox of Hedging Risks
Why should a hedge fund that included two Nobel prize-winners among its principal shareholders make staggering losses by trading in financial instruments designed to reduce risk? There was, presumably, nothing wrong with the techniques themselves, just the way in which they were used. It is sometimes argued that measures to improve the safety of car occupants, e.g. seat belts, increase risk by encouraging drivers to go faster than they would without them.
It is possible that the sophisticated models that apparently enable risk to
be accurately quantified encourage risk taking by financiers who would
otherwise err on the side of caution. However that does not explain other
scandals that have involved derivatives, e.g. the collapse of Barings Bank or
the illegal trades in Swedish stocks by a member of the Flaming
Derivatives Traders and Gamblers
Keynes may have been exaggerating when he wrote about investors who practise the fourth, fifth and higher degrees of speculation. However, futures and options are highly geared, or leveraged, transactions and therefore traders/investors are able to assume large positions - with similar sized risks - with very little up-front outlay.
By their very nature they encourage those higher degrees of speculation so
that derivatives traders behave, as Linda Davies
wrote, like a bookie once removed. The potential rewards are such that a
technique designed to reduce risk is all too often treated as a gambler's
Mispriced Derivatives Scandals
Derivatives are sometimes deliberately mispriced in order to conceal losses or to make profits by fraud.
Mispriced options were used by NatWest Capital Markets to conceal losses and the British Securities and Futures Authority concluded its disciplinary action against the firm and two of its employees, Kyriacos Papouis and Neil Dodgson, in May 2000.
In March 2001 a Japanese court fined Credit Suisse First Boston 40 million yen because a subsidiary had used complex derivatives transactions to conceal losses.
In Seeing Tomorrow: rewriting the rules of risk by Ron S. Dembo and Andrew Freeman, a case in which "clever but criminal staff got inside an options pricing model and used tiny changes to skim off a few million dollars of profits for themselves" is described on page 23. The culprits were not prosecuted because the bank feared that the revelation could wipe out hundreds of millions of dollars of its overall value. This case is reminiscent of the plot of Into the Fire.
Another possible case came to light in January
2006 when Anshul Rustagi, a London-based derivatives trader at Deutsche Bank
was suspended after allegedly overstating profits on his own trading book by
£30 million. He was subsequently dismissed.
Toxic Derivatives and the Credit Crunch
Credit default swaps were widely blamed for exacerbated the global financial crisis by hastening the demise of Lehman Brothers, AIG and other companies in 2008. By 2012 the derivatives market was worth $1,200 trillion or about 20 times the value of the entire world's output. This enormous ticking time bomb threatens to wreck international efforts to solve the world's biggest financial crisis since the 1930s.
There are many examples contracts entered into by English Cistercian Monestaries who frequently sold their wool up to 20 years in advance to foreign merchants.
Early 17th Century
1634-1637 Tulip Mania in Holland
Fortunes are lost in after a speculative boom in tulip futures burst.
Late 17th Century
Dojima Rice Futures
In Japan at Dojima, near Osaka a futures market in rice is developed to protect sellers from bad weather or warfare.
1868 Chicago Board of Trade
Trading in wheat, pork belly and copper futures starts.
Late 1960s - Black and Scholes begin collaboration
Fischer Black and Myron Scholes tackle the problem of determining how much an option is worth. Robert Merton joins them in 1970.
|April 1973 The Chicago Board Options Exchange opens.
May/June 1973 The Black-Scholes Model is Published.
It appears in the Journal of Political Economy, one of the journals that had previously rejected it.
|1994 Metallgesellshaft loses $1.5 billion on oil futures.
1995 Barings Bank goes bust.
Nick Leeson loses $1.4 billion by gambling that the Nikkei 225 index of leading Japanese company shares would not move materially from its normal trading range. That assumption was shattered by the Kobe earthquake on the 17th January 1995 after which Leeson attempted to conceal his losses.
|1997 Nobel Prize in Economics awarded to Robert Merton and Myron Scholes.
1998 Long Term Credit Management Bailout
The hedge fund is rescued at a cost of $3.5 billion because of worries that its collapse would have severe repercussions for the world financial system.
1999 The Flaming Ferraris
Some traders at CSFB are sacked following allegations of illegal trades in an attempt to manipulate the Swedish stock market index.
2001 Enron goes Bankrupt
The 7th largest company in the US and the world's largest energy trader made extensive use of energy and credit derivatives but becomes the biggest firm to go bankrupt in American history after systematically attempting to conceal huge losses.
2002 AIB loses $750 million
John Rusnak uses fictitious options contracts to cover loses on spot and forward foreign exchange contracts.
2003 Terrorism Futures Plan Dropped
The US Defense Department had thought that such a market would improve the prediction and prevention of terrorist outrages.
January 2004 NAB admits losing A$180 million
Four foreign currency dealers at the National Australia Bank are said to have run up the losses in three months of unauthorised trades.
August 2004 Citigroup bear raid
Citigroup traders led by Spiros Skordos made €15 million by suddenly selling €11 billion worth of European bonds and bond derivatives, and buying many of them back at a lower price.
November 2004 China Aviation loses $550m in speculative trade
This loss is the largest amount a company in Singapore has lost by betting on derivatives since the case of Nick Leeson and Barings.
October 2005 Refco suspends trading
One of the world's largest derivatives brokers is forced to freeze trades.
September 2006 Amaranth Advisors loses $6 billion
the US-based hedge fund suffered enormous loses trading in natural gas futures.
January 2008 Société Générale loses €4.9
billion in unauthorised futures trading
A rogue trader is blamed for the world's largest banking fraud up to that date.
July 2009 A rogue trader causes havoc in the oil market
Steve Perkins, a futures broker with PVM Oil, was blamed for unauthorised trades that could have cost the firm £400m if they had not been discovered and closed.
July 2012 Network Rail has total liabilities of £1.2 billion in derivatives
The Conservative MP John Redwood suggests that they should spend the money on the railways instead of acting as if they are running their own investment bank.
Derivatives in Fiction
In addition to Into the Fire which has a plot involving mispriced derivatives based on the South Korean Kospi Index, and is out in a new edition, there are two other novels by Linda Davies featuring types of derivatives. Nest of Vipers involves options and futures trades in the forex market while Something Wild features Bowie bonds which are a type of asset-backed security which is a derivative product in the same sense that corporate shares and bonds are derivatives, whose prices depend on the underlying asset value and cash flow.
Finding More Information on Financial DerivativesNumaWeb is an excellent source of information. For a collection of quotations, mostly about derivatives see Don M. Chance's DerivaQuote. For more details of some of the biggest scandals involving derivatives see Trading Scandals.
The Financial Policy Forum and the Derivatives Study Center is another major source of information on this subject.
FINCAD, a website where people can find information about regulations, a glossary, white papers dealing with derivatives, and more.
Derivatives One is a website with a free valuation tool for pricing futures as well as European, American and Exotic options. Over 50 types of derivatives are covered by the calculator.
Satyajit Das, the author of several technical books on derivatives, has written Traders Guns & Money, a popular inside view of what he described in an interview as "a world where a small group of gifted, if rapacious, individuals parlay their knowledge of financial products into wealth, leaving shareholders, clients, regulators, and the tax paying ordinary public to bear most of the risk."
For more information about the history of derivatives see chapter 18 The Fantastic System of Side Bets in the book by Bernstein.
Bernstein, Peter L. Against the gods : the remarkable story of risk. Chichester : Wiley, 1996. - 383p ISBN 0-471-12104-5.Julian Hodge Bank, and endowed a number of chairs to the University of Wales, including the chair in banking and finance that was held by Glyn Davies, author of A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day. During that period Sir Julian sponsored a series of lectures in memory of his mother, the Jane Hodge Memorial Lectures, that were given by Sir Leslie O'Brien and Robin Leigh-Pemberton, (both governors of the Bank of England), Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh, Pierre-Paul Schweitzer, (Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund), David Rockefeller (of the oil industry dynasty) and Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani, the Saudi Arabian oil minister.
In 1999 the Cardiff Business School of Cardiff University and Julian Hodge Bank established the Julian Hodge Institute of Applied Macroeconomics. The bank also sponsors Euro Know, the Euro-sceptic website.