The Euro - Europe's Single Common Currency
"If you think the speculators can't get at the
countries within EMU, think again. It won't be long before our derivatives
geniuses dream up a new synthetic currency. Where there is motive, there
will always be opportunity."
The quotation is from a speech on the Psychology of
Risk, Speculation and Fraud, at a conference on the Future of European
Monetary Union in Amsterdam.
For the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire most of Europe
has a single, common currency. The US dollar faces the first challenge to its hegemony
since it displaced the British pound sterling as the world's most important currency
after the First World War. However, if the Euro is to assume a wider role it will have
to flourish in its own continent and survive challenges to the stability of European
- What are the prospects for European monetary union? This page
contains links sources expressing a variety of viewpoints for and against.
- Britain and European Monetary Union
- An essay on how the history of the pound sterling differs from that of most
continental currencies based on the work of Glyn Davies,
author of A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present
Day. The pound sterling has an unbroken history of over 900 years. In contrast
most European countries have replaced their currencies at least once, Germany having
done so several times in living memory, and many continental countries have been
members of previous currency unions. Thus it is inevitable that the British should be
more cautious about abandoning their national currency.
- Enthusiasm and
Resistance to Union in Britain and Germany
- Chapter 5 of the book, Money and Politics - European Monetary Unification and the
International Gold Standard (1865-1873) by Luca Einaudi. The chapter discusses
reactions to schemes to achieve monetary union by aligning the weights of the gold
coins of Britain, France, other European countries, and the United States.
- From the
Franc to the 'Europe'
- An article by Luca Einaudi on the attempted Transformation of the Latin Monetary
Union into a European Monetary Union.
Commission: Economic and Financial Affairs: The Euro.
- Information about the currency from the website of the European Commission.
- The Euro
- The European Central Bank maintains this website which includes information about
the banknotes and coins plus details of the history of the greatest monetary
changeover of all time and the changeover in new member states of the European
- The European Central Bank: History, Role and Functions.
- By Hanspeter K. Scheller (2004, 2nd revised edition: 2006). The complete text of the book is available online.
- European Monetary Institute
- The official web site of the Institute.
- Psychology of
Risk, Speculation and Fraud by Linda Davies
- What are the dangers to European Monetary Union from legal speculation and from
fraudsters? A novelist who is a former banker considers the risks.
- Economic Policy and
Growth in Europe
- A four page summary in English of a French report written by Report by Philippe
Aghion, Elie Cohen and Jean Pisani-Ferry for the Conseil d'Analyse Economique which
claims that the Euro has failed to boost jobs and trade. January 2006. The full 308
page French version of the report is available to be downloaded. Politique
économique et croissance en Europe, par AGHION Philippe, COHEN Elie, et
PISANI-FERRY Jean FRANCE. Conseil d'analyse économique Paris;La Documentation
française;2006;308 pages (Les Rapports du Conseil d'analyse économique,
- The Future of the Eurozone
- A paper by John Redwood MP, the former Conservative cabinet member and leading Eurosceptic.
- Wolfson Economics Prize
- The Wolfson Economics Prize challenged the world’s brightest economists to prepare a contingency plan for a break-up of the Eurozone. It was won by a team from Capital Economics led by Roger Bootle. The winning entry outlines the smoothest process by which a member state could exit the Eurozone.
- Greece has been sacrificed on the altar of the failed euro experiment
- An IMF report proves that British taxpayers' money was used to back a coup against the Greek people, says Nigel Farage, Telegraph, 7 June 2013.
- Greek rescue was only to save euro, admits IMF
- A leaked internal report says bail-out broke key rules and led to more debt. The Province, 5 June 2013.
- Alternative für Deutschland: A German Eurosceptic movement?
- A paper by Nicolaus Heinen of the Research Department of Deutsche Bank outlining the policies of Alternative für Deutschland and discussing its electoral prospects. 4 March 2013.
- Bernd Lucke interview: 'Why Germany has had enough of the euro'
- The founder of Germany's first eurosceptic party explains why it is time to break up the euro – and why he is confident of dethroning Angela Merkel. The Telegraph, 7 April 2013.
- Dutch Freedom Party pushes euro exit as €2.4 trillion rescue bill looms
- The Dutch Freedom Party has called for a return to the Guilder, becoming the first political movement in the eurozone with a large popular base to opt for withdrawal from the single currency. Daily Telegraph, 5 March 2012.
- Will return of Spanish peseta spell doom for the euro?
- In just the last year several Spanish villages and towns have been quietly re-introducing the peseta alongside the euro as unemployment and a stagnant economy grip the country. Telegraph, 15 February 2012.
- Vive le
franc: defiant village snubs the Euro
- The Eurocrats should take heed. Collobrières, a village of 1,600
inhabitants in southern France has decided to bring back the franc as legal tender in
an experiment that it hopes will be followed elsewhere. The Sunday Times, July 13,
- In the French
heartland, the franc lives on
- This isolated village deep in Provence has decided to accept the French franc in
everyday commerce, along with the euro. International Herald Tribune, June 29,
- Italy minister
seeks lira return
- A second minister in Italy's government coalition has cast doubt on Italy keeping
the euro, and called for the return of the lira. BBC, 6 June 2005.
The euro is killing our economy, say Dutch
- By Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, Daily Telegraph, 1 June 2005.
- Why the
Euro System: is Unsustainable
- An interview with Wilhelm Hankel, one of four German professors who had tried to
stop the replacement of the German mark by the euro, by means of a legal procedure
against it at the German Federal Constitutional Court. Executive Intelligence Review,
August 12, 2005.
- Euro Looks
- The Euro might be running high against the US Dollar, but support for the single
currency in France is headed for an all-time low. EURSOC Two 13 December, 2006 .
- When the
Euro falls apart
- A paper by Hal S. Scott of the Harvard Law School about the possibility of
countries abandoning the Euro and the consequences of doing so. Originally published
in International Finance vol. 1 no. 2, 1998, p. 207-228.
- The end of
EMU: legal ramifications
- An article by Julian D. A. Wiseman about how EMU could break up and its legal
end of EMU: How the Germans could leave
- Another article by Julian Wiseman.
- Financial Times Special Reports
- Up-to-date information about the Euro and developments affecting the
- Euro Know
- A website set up by a group of economists who, in common with Sir Julian and
Jonathan Hodge, and sponsored by the Julian Hodge Bank, feel that the economic and
political arguments about the Euro need to be properly explained.
- Euro conversion FAQ
- Answers to frequently asked questions about changing from national currencies to
- Answers from the Bundesbank to questions about the Euro banknotes.
- Renewed speculation about
RFID in Euro Notes
- The September 2005 issue of the German industry magazine Die Bank contains
speculation about the introduction of microchips with radio frequency identification
devices in banknotes as a possible measure against counterfeiting.
- Single Global Currency
- Does the Euro go nearly far enough? The Single Global Currency Association seeks
to promote the implementation of a single global currency, with an international
central bank, by the year 2025. The website also has many links to other sites on
- Euro Information
- This website provides information for business and travellers about dealing with
the euro as a foreign currency, and on-line versions of key documents relating to UK
euro preparations, including the third outline National Changeover Plan.
- The 5 Economic
- An outline of the five economic tests that Gordon Brown and the Treasury said
would have to be satisfied before Britain could adopt the Euro.
UK Membership of the single currency, An assessment of the five economic
- An outline of the main conclusions regarding the Chancellor of the Exchequer's
Five Economic Tests.
- The 5
- One of a set of detailed studies accompanying HM Treasury's assessment of the
five economic tests of whether or not Britain should join the Euro.
- BBC In
Depth: UK and the Euro
- A large collection of articles and news about various aspects of the Euro.
- Giancarlo Corsetti's
- Lots of detailed economic information. This site includes a chronology of
- Where the
Euro is Used
- A list of all the states and territories using the Euro and those in Africa,
Europe and the Pacific whose currencies are linked to the Euro.
- Link Technology Euro
- An integrated suite of Euro tools designed specifically for the desktop.
- Systems Modelling Ltd. Euro
- A large collection of links to useful resources, including Managing the Euro in Information Systems:
Strategies for Successful Changeover information from a book by Patrick
- There are six
economic tests, not five
- The UK must aim to join the euro by 2007 - we can't afford not to, claims Peter
Mandelson, Guardian 22 May 2003.
thriving outwith euro, says Greenspan
- In a visit to London to receive a knighthood, the chairman of the US Federal
Reserve said that the City of London is thriving outside the eurozone and has not
suffered from Britain's decision not to join the single currency in the first wave.
The Scotsman, 26 September 2002.
- The role of the euro in the
world - past developments and future perspectives
- A speech by Dr. Jürgen Stark, Deputy Governor of the Deutsche Bundesbank, in
The role of the euro in the world - past developments and future
- A paper with the same title as Jürgen Stark's, by Richard Portes, London
Business School and CEPR, November 2000.
- History of the Euro
- An article by J. Orlin Grabbe.
- Q&A: The UK's
- The UK government seems to be gearing up for a referendum on the UK adopting the
euro - but what is the likely timetable? BBC, 12 February, 2003.
- The Eurodollar
- Bryan Taylor argues that within the next ten year the Euro should be merged with
the Dollar to create a Eurodollar, which would act as a single currency for both the
United States and Europe, and eventually for the rest of the world.
- Stability pact
squabbles shake the euro
- There is a long running dispute over the proper enforcement of the Stability and
Growth pact, the very rules which underpin the single currency. BBC, 6 January
- Gold and the
- An editorial from the Gold Eagle
investment newsletter on the relationship between gold and the Euro.
- FATF 19989-1999 Report on Money Laundering
- This report contains information about he possible impact of the Euro on money
- U.S. Hedge
Fund Supposedly Knew About Intervention
- The newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung reported on 27 September
2000, rumours that a leak of information from a central bank outside the Euro zone
led to Citibank, one of the leading currency traders worldwide, buying up euros in
large volumes for a U.S. hedge fund company. These allegations could well have come
straight from the pages of the novel, Nest of
of England - Speeches on European Matters
- Details of speeches made by Bank personnel which have been made available to the
- Deja V-uro by Sam
- The Euro feels like a novelty - but it is not. It was preceded by quite a few
Monetary Unions in Europe and outside it.
- The Congress for
- The Congress for Democracy provides a forum for discussion and co-operation
between individuals and groups from across the political spectrum who want to retain
an independent pound.
- The Case for the
- The text of a speech by Peter Chapman delivered to Liberal Democrat local party
on Wed 15th October 2003.
- A discussion group for people who are interested in exchanging data about the
practical preparations companies can and should be making for possible UK entry into
- Euros accepted at four
- Welsh assembly culture minister Alun Pugh has announced that Caernarfon, Conwy,
Tintern and Caerphilly castles will all accept the European currency. BBC, 9 July
- Article on the Swedish
- An article on the verdict published in the Public Service Review: Nordic States,
24 of November 2003.
Danish Referendum on Economic and Monetary union
- A (British) House of Commons Research Paper about the referendum on 28th
September 2000 in which the Danes voted against adopting the Euro.
- Statement of Dutch
Economists concerning the European Monetary Union
- A warning signed by 70 Dutch economists in February 1997 that with its plans for
EMU, the European Union is taking the wrong road.
- Why Italy is turning
back to the lira
- An article about the unpopularity of the Euro in Italy and how a shop in Milan
has started to accept lira again. BBC, 14 January, 2003.
yes. But by how much?
- Although the Italian Institute for National Statistics, Istat, says the inflation
rate is 2.5% an independent research group, Eurispes, says it is more like 29%. Many
people blame the Euro. The Economist, 9 January 2003.
Change, Big Annoyance in Europe
- Two nations, Finland and Belgium, have already scrapped 1- and 2-cent coins
introduced with the euro, and others may follow suit. Business Week, September 23,
- Euro-linked price
rises provoke consumer backlash
- Europe's consumers are being urged to boycott retailers who have engaged in
profiteering since the introduction of the new single currency, the euro. Sydney
Morning Herald, June 22, 2002.
Germans lose appetite for euro
- The franc, mark and lire have vanished, but in their place is springing up a
dense undergrowth of do-it-yourself currencies as recession-mired regions seek to
pump purchasing power back into their communities. Mail on Sunday, 4 January
- Germany clears the
way for EMU
- Germany's highest court has rejected two constitutional court cases against the
euro, brought by German academics. BBC, April 2, 1998.
- The decision by store owners in a small German town of Kropp in Schleswig
Holstein to continue to accept deutschmarks has had a positive impact on the local
economy. Guardian, December 27, 2002.
Bundesbank upset by mark revival
- The German mark - consigned to history at the beginning of 2002 - is making a
startling comeback thanks to the unpopularity of the euro. Daily Telegraph, 6 June
- Euro led to
price rises, says German minister
- Germany's finance minister Hans Eichel has admitted that the introduction of euro
notes and coins led to significant price rises across the country. The Guardian, May
- German Voice Doubts
about the Euro
- A group of short articles about German criticisms of the Euro.
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Roy Davies - last updated 11 June 2013.